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science ch. 5

science ch 5

anaphase Spindle fibers shorten, pulling the sister chromatids toward the opposite poles of the cell. This gives each pole a complete set of chromosomes.
binary fission The cell simply splits into two equal halves and occurs in bacteria and other prokaryotes.
cell cycle All of the stages that a cell goes through
chromosome consists of DNA and protein molecules coiled into a definite shape
cell division the division of a cell into 2 daughter cells with the same genetic material
cytokinesis The cell wall grows toward the center of the cell. The cytoplasm splits apart, and the cell pinches in two
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the nucleic acid that stores genetic information
DNA replication The process in which DNA is copied
interphase the cells are preparing for cell division
metaphase Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids. The sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell.
mitosis division of the nucleus, occurs only in eukaryotic cells.
prophase Chromosomes form, and the nuclear membrane breaks down. In animal cells, the centrioles near the nucleus move to opposite poles of the cell. Fibers called spindles form between the centrioles.
telophase The chromosomes uncoil, and the spindle fibers break down. New nuclear membranes form.
asexual reproduction It involves just one parent. The offspring are genetically identical to each other and to the parent.
diploid The number of chromosomes in normal body cells
egg A gamete produced by a female parent
fertilization The union of the two gametes i
gamete Special cells produced by the parents
haploid The number of different types of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes The two members of a given pair of chromosomes
meiosis a special type of cell division. It produces haploid daughter cells. It occurs when an organism makes gametes.
sperm A gamete produced by a male parent
zygote The initial cell that forms when two gametes unite
codon These three-letter code words
genetic code the sequence of nitrogen bases in DNA
mutagen Anything in the environment that causes a mutation
mutation a change in the base sequence of DNA or RNA.
protein synthesis The process in which proteins are made.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) It copies instructions in DNA and carries them to a ribosome in the cytoplasm. Then it helps build the protein.
transcription the first step in protein synthesis. It takes place in the nucleus. A strand of DNA is copied to make a strand of mRNA
translation the second step in protein synthesis. It takes place at a ribosome in the cytoplasm. The genetic code in mRNA is read to make a protein.
Created by: tmanfred