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raegans bio review

review for test

inheritance passing of traits from one generation to the next
genetics study of inheritance
alleles different forms of genes (ex: tall plant or short plant)
Gregor mendel used pea plants to study inheritance patterns
what did Mendel determine some alleles are dominant : some alleles are recessive : dominant alleles are always expressed and mask other traits : recessive alleles are only expressed if dominant alleles are not present
sex-linked traits that are carried on the X chromosome and not the Y males only receive one copy of an allele
autosomes Any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome
genotype phenotype heterozygous homozygous (genotype) genes an organism has (BB bb Bb) (phenotype) physical appearance (homo) same alleles (hetero) diffrent alleles
genotype ratio vs phenotype ratio genotype ratio: 1LL : 2Ll : 1ll phenotype ratio: 3 tall : 1 short
pedigree used to show inheritance of traits thru generations
incomplete dominance one allele is NOT completly Dominant over another ( they blend )
codominance both alleles are expressed
multiple alleles 3 or more alleles of same gene that code for a single trait (ex: blood type-3 alleles A,B,O)
polygenic traits traits that are carried on more than 1 pair of chromosomes (ex: eye color)
chromosomal mutation change in entire genes or chromosomes TYPES: deletion insertion translocation inversion non-disjunction
nondisjunction meiosis mistake, failure of chromosome pairs to separate
monosomy loss of a single chromosome (daughter cell will have one missing chromosome)
trisomy gaining a single chromosome
down syndrome : turners syndrome : klinefelters syndrom (down) trisomy 21- extra chromosome (turners) missing sex chromosome X (klinefelters) extra sex chromosome X
karyotype : human genome project (karyotype) picture of an individuals chromosomes (human genome project) project to understand order of bases for all human genes found in our DNA
during meiosis... parent cell divides twice, making 4 haploid cells
what does meiosis produce sex cells or gametes (ex: sperm and egg)
haploid sex cells (contains only one copy of each chromosome) (ex: human sex cells=23 chromosomes)
when does crossing over occur during meiosis when chromosome pairs exchange pieces
what results in variation sexual reproduction, crossing over during meiosis, mutations
Created by: raeganskees