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GEO - 8SouthAmerica

Study Guide for Chapter 8 "South America" Test

QuestionAnswer
Basin low area surrounded by higher land
Selva thick rainforests
Escarpment a steep cliff between higher and lower land
Favela slum areas
Deforestation the destroying of large areas of forest
Pampas a vast treeless plain (of Argentina)
Estancia huge ranches that cover the pampas
Gaucho cowhands (or cowboys who work on the estancias of the pampas)
Who was the first and largest group of Europeans to colonize Brazil? The Portuguese were the first and largest European group to colonize Brazil.
What resources attract companies to the Amazon Basin? rubber harvested from the basin’s trees, mining companies dig for minerals such as bauxite, tin, and iron ore. Logging companies harvest mahogany and other woods from the rainforest
What is the major religion of Brazil? Most of the population follow the Roman Catholic religion.
What economic challenges face Brazilians? One-fifth of Brazil’s people live in extreme poverty. Many Brazilian cities are surrounded by favela Thousands of poor people move to cities looking for work in the factories. They live in crude shacks with neither running water nor sewage systems.
Why are Brazil’s inland areas sparsely populated? Millions of people have moved from rural areas to coastal cities to find better jobs.
What are the voting requirements in Brazil? In Brazil, though, citizens cannot choose whether to vote or not vote. People from ages 18 to 70 are required by law to vote.
What are the mineral resources and agricultural products are found the Highlands south of the Amazon Basin? The southern region of Brazil boasts one of the world’s largest iron ore deposits. The highlands are perfect for growing coffee. It also has huge cattle ranches and exports beef all over the world.
Why did African slaves come to Brazil? In the 1500s, the Portuguese forced Native Americans to work on large plantations. Many Native Americans died from disease or overwork. To replace them, early Portuguese settlers brought people from Africa and enslaved them.
When and Why did Brazil’s government move the capital city to Brasilia? In 1960 Millions of people have moved from rural areas to coastal cities to find better jobs. Now the government is encouraging people to move back to less populated inland areas to reduce city crowding.
Hydroelectric Power electricity that is generated by flowing water
Llanos grassy plains (in Venezuela)
Altitude height above sea level
Caudillo military rulers (who govern a country)
Describe two ways in which the pampas are similar to the Great Plains of the United States? Similar to the Great Plains of the United States, the pampas are home to farmers who grow grains and ranchers who raise livestock.
What is the significance of the Itaipu Dam? It is the world’s largest hydroelectric power generator (allows Paraguay to export 90% of the electricity it produces)
Who was Simon Bolivar? (In the early 1800s, rebellion swept across the Spanish colonial empire.) Simón Bolívar ( who was born in Venezuela), became one of the leaders of this revolt. He and his soldiers freed Venezuela and neighboring regions from Spanish rule.
Which of Juan Peron’s policies led to his removal from office? His crackdown on freedom of speech and the press made people unhappy, however. In 1955 a revolt drove Perón from power, and democracy returned.
Why are the pampas an important region of Argentina? More than two-thirds of Argentina’s people live in this region. Argentina’s economy depends heavily on farming and ranching. Gauchos are the national symbol of Argentina Beef and food products are Argentina’s chief exports.
What are the major language and religion of Uruguay? Spanish is the official language, and the Roman Catholic faith is the major religion.
What are the major economic activities of Paraguay? Forestry and farming are Paraguay’s major economic activities. (Large cattle ranches cover much of the country. Most farmers, however, grow grains, cotton, soybeans, and cassava on small plots.)
Which of Venezuela’s resources is its main source of income? ince the 1920s,petroleum has changed the country’s economy. Venezuela is a world leader in oil production. Because the government owns the oil industry, oil provides nearly half of the government’s income.
Where do most of the people of the Guianas live and why do they live there? Most people live on the coastal plains because of the cooling ocean winds.
Which of Brazil’s neighbors has been a colony of France since the 1600s? French Guiana became a colony of France in the 1600s and remains one today.
Created by: ColbyHistory