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Microbiology Exam #4

Chapters 10,17-23

Which of the following is a household example of biotechnology bread making
Part of the cleanup efforts for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 involved ________ bioremediation
What does it mean to refer to an organism as a "recombinant" in the biotechnology field an organism with DNA from multiple sources
What represents advancements due to genetic engineering -medicine and vaccine productionWhat represents advancements due to genetic engineering -enhanced nutrition -resistant crop production -mass production of industrial enzymes
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to rapidly increase the amount of _______ in a sample and operates by repetitive cycling of _____ basic steps. DNA three
This step requires the addition of synthetic oligonucleotides, called _______, which bind to the separated DNA strands through primers
At the end of the cycle , ______ complete strands of DNA are formed which can now serve as templates for subsequent cycles of amplification. two
The primer-bound DNA strands are ready for synthesis and are now called _________. amplicons
In the final step, ________ occurs at _____ degrees Celsius with the addition of ___________ and nucleotides extension 72
The system is then cooled to _______ degrees Celsius for _______ to occur. 50 to 60 priming
____________ is initiated by heating the target DNA to ____ degrees Celsius, separating it into two strands. Denaturation 94
Genetic technology can play a role in the outcome of a trial in a court of law. T/F True
Statement that best describes the role of restriction enzymes in genetic engineering restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA as specific locations
Three basic steps in PCR cycle when all reagents and the DNA sample that are to be amplified are mixed and ready to go -Denaturation at 94 degrees C -Annealing primers at 60 degrees C -Extension at 72 degrees C
Phenotypic includes techniques for the observation of a microbe's microscopic and macroscopic morphology, physiology, and biochemical properties
Genotypic includes techniques for the analysis of a microbe's DNA and RNA
Immunologic includes techniques for the analysis of a microbe using antibodies, or of patient's antibodies using pre-packaged antigens
Statement that best describes the indirect ELISA technique detects the presence of antibody in a sample using a known antigen absorbed onto the well
Breakthrough methods of genome analysis -genome sequences from dif organisms associated w/ specific syndrome are affixed to a chip in microarray analysis -deep tissue inf, inc. biofilm inf of artificial joints, can be visualized using MRI, PET, and CT scans
Statements that apply to the process of agglutination -antigens are whole cells such as RBCs -antigen-antibody reactions from an insoluble aggregate -one antigen interacts w/multiple antibodies
Recombinant DNA technology Deliberately removing genetic material from one organism and combine it with that of a different organism
Three goals of recombinant DNA technology -Eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits -Combine beneficial traits of two or more organisms -Create organisms that synthesize products humans need
Does recombinant DNA techbology pose any risk to human health or environmental Multiple, well controlled, peer-reviewed studies have not shown any risks to human health or environment
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
Real-time PCR newly made DNA is tagged with a fluorescent dye; the levels of fluorescence can be measured after every PCR cycle Can detect products during the reaction instead of at the end
Multiplex PCR multiple specific primers that result in different length fragments all used in the same reaction
PCR plays an essential role in Gene mapping, study of genetic defects and cancer, forensics, infectious disease diagnosis, taxonomy studies
restriction enzymes in cloning by insert gene into a plasmid vect express protein recognize and clip at palindromes Cuts with 'blunt' or 'sticky' ends staggered symmetrical cuts that leave short tails Base-pair w/comp tails on other DNA frag/ plasmids cut w/ same enzyme
gel electrophoresis Separates molecules based on electrical charge, size, and shape (smaller fragments migrate faster than larger ones)
DNA fingerprinting unique DNA sequence identifies individuals or organisms
How many types of herpes simplex viruses 2 (HSV 1 and HSV 2)
HSV-1 affect oral mucosa leading to cold sores; more prone to Alzheimer's disease (80% of elderly HSV-1+)
HSV-2 genital infections - Latent due to miRNAs: reactivated in stress, UV radiation, injury, menstruation o HSV-1 remains in trigeminal nerve o HSV-2 remains in ganglion of lumbosacral spinal nerve trun
Treatment of HSV Acyclovir and topical ointments very effective
Syphilis scientific name Treponema pallidum
Primary syphilis painless chancres (large red bumps) that enlarges to a shallow crater
Secondary syphilis invasion; red or brown widespread rash and lymphadenopathy
Tertiary and latency syphilis rare but can last 20 years or longer ---> heart failure and congenital defects
Candida albicans Dimorphic normal biota fungi in mouth, vagina, and GI - Opportunistic: broad spectrum antibiotics, tight pants, diabetic, pregnant, or menstruating women - Oral thrush in babies
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Pubic pain, frequent urges to urinate, and burning pain with urination (dysuria) - caused by (E. coli - 80% of UTIs) - acid pH, lysozyme, lactoferrin, IgA, mucus
C. difficile disease GI disease that produces enterotoxin, colitis with superinfection, cause diarrhea, disruption of normal biota due to antibiotics, may need fecal transplant treatment: antibiotics, probiotics, or fecal transplant
Hepatitis Virus (Inflammatory liver condition with accompanied jaundice (accumulation of bilirubin)
Hepatitis A/E (nonenveloped ssRNA virus) Mild, generally nonvirulent, Fecal-oral route
Hepatitis B (enveloped DNA virus) Enters through break in skin/mucous membranes oCo-infection with RNA virus hepatitis D: permanent liver damage and death
Hepatitis C (RNA virus) silently affects 4.1 million Americans Most common cause of liver cancer in the U.S. 75-85% remain infected indefinitely No vaccine
Gastric Ulcer Heliobacter pylori - Lesions in stomach mucosa ---> sharp or burning pain - favor O blood type - WBC's damage mucosal lining - Transmission most likely oral-fecal - HelicoVax vaccine: concerns over H. pylori's protection against asthma
GI tract defenses Mouth and anus saliva lysozymes stomach acidity intestinal alkalinity competition from normal flora
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Diagnosis of TB First visit: Perform Mantoux test Second Visit: 48-72 hours later to read result Positive Result: test bump larger than 5mm Negative Result: test bump smaller than 5mm
What is TB - Inflammation and lesions (granulomas) of the lung tissue and damage due to own immune response - slow growth rate
Signs of TB - signs - cough, chest pains, weakness, malaise
Forms of TB latent (not contagious) and active (infectious)
Influenza types A, B & C
Most common influenza winter viruses A & B
Influenza prevention Prevention by vaccine (mixture of two or more prevalent or fatal A & B strains) - recommended for children, elderly, and healthcare professionals
Common Cold (URI) acute inflammation that affects the mucous membrane of the URI - Rhinovirus (rhinitis) 50% of the colds, 100+ serotypes, Transmission by respiratory droplets - 200 different viruses can cause the common cold
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear, common in URI S. pneumoniae or H. influenza AKA swimmers ear
What does otitis media cause Causes pain in the ear and loss of hearing: irritability, fussiness, and difficulty sleeping and eating (mixed biofilms common)
Otitis media vaccine 2012 Prevnar vaccine with 13 strains of capsulated bacteria and H. influenzae vaccine
Respiratory hairs, mucus, cilia, IgA, lymphoid tissue, alveolar macrophages
HIV/AIDS the virus that causes AIDS, spread through bodily fluids rather than casual contact or airborne
HIV/AIDS result of high mutation rates results in combination therapy of RT inhibitors, integrase inhibitor, and "booster" drugs
How is HIV spread Zoonotic primate disease spread through direct contact (sex, needles, and trauma)
How does HIV work Depletes helper T cells in the blood (leukopenia): prone to secondary infections
Malaria caused by Plasmodium species
What is the vector of malaria mosquito
Malaria treatment chloroquine, insecticides or mosquito nets
Malaria symptoms alternate between bout of fever and chills due to RBC rupture every 48-72 hours
Changas disease Trypanosoma cruzi
Changas disease acute vs chronic symptoms - Acute: fever, nausea, and fatigue vs. Chronic: inflammation, eyelid swelling, and organ disruption
Vector of Changas disease kissing bug as vector
How does Changas disease work - Can neutralize lysosome's enzymes and pH and cover itself with host proteins (autoimmunity)
Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferibull's eye rash, neurologic symptoms, red rash, and swelling treatment: doxycycline, amox, or cefuroxime symptoms:
Vector as lyme disease tick as vector
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis occurs in humans when they come in contact with infected sick animals, contaminated products, or exposed to spores
Treatment for Anthrax Combined therapy treatment: PCN + doxycycline + ciproflaxin
What is anthrax Gram (+) endospore former and soil bacteria
Anthrax: Tripartite toxin (A-B toxin): edema factor (A) + protective antigen (A: massive inflammation and shock) (B) + lethal factor
septicemia systemic bacterial blood infection (20-50% mortality rate)
The cardiovascular system is -well protected from invasion to septicemia
African Sleeping Sickness Trypanosoma brucei
Vector of African Sleeping Sickness tsetse fly
Signs/symptoms of African Sleeping Sickness - Causes uncontrollable sleepiness during day and sleeplessness at night - Includes tremors, fait, seizures, and local paralysis
Tetanus Clostridium tetani
Tetanus treatment tetanus immune globulin (TIG) for immediate treatment, no cure.
Tetanus signs/symptoms - Lockjaw: sardonic, eerie smile - muscle paralysis (neurotoxin BLOCKS muscle contraction) - differs from botulism in that muscles CANNOT contract with botulism
Rabies an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
Rabies characteristics - Slow, progressive zoonotic disease that causes fatal encephalitis - Virulence due to enveloped glycoprotein that allows for attachment to glial cells
Rabies vaccination contains protein from rabies virus envelope - Full course of vaccination after being bitten is required for 2 weeks
Meninigitis inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
Meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, H. influenza, S. pneumoniae, herpesvirus
Meninigitis sign/symptom - Photophobia, headache, painful or stiff neck, fever, and high numbers of WBCs in the CSF - Petechiae: red or purple lesions on trunk and appendages
Meningitis treatment Conjugated MCV4 vaccine
The blood brain barrier of the nervous system physiological barrier between the circulatory system and the central nervous system that establishes a privileged blood supply, restricting the flow of substances into the CNS -part of the Nervous System
River blindness helminth infection Infection by Onchocerca volvus, a nematode or roundworm, is transmitted to humans by the bite of black flies
River blindness symptoms Cause inflammation to the optic nerve and retina
River blindness vector Black fly vector: (Transmitted by black flies: fly in packs and cause several hundred bites per day)
River blindness worms Microfilariae (immature worms) migrate via bloodstream to the eye, and mature adult worms can last 15 years in skin nodules
Pinkeye conjunctivitis
Bacterial and Viral of conjuctivitis Bacterial infection (S. aureus & S. pneumoniae): milky discharge Viral conjunctivitis (adenovirus and herpesvirus): clear discharge
Neonatal eye infections Serious conjunctivitis caused by: - Neisseria gonorrheae - Chlamydia trachomatis - Herpes after vaginal birth Large amounts of pus form in the eyes
conjuctivitis treatment ciprofloxacin eye drops - bacterial
MRSA methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus a mutated strain of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to the antibiotic, methicillin
MRSA Treatment Vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, ceftaroline involves multiple antibiotics, hospital acquired,
MRSA Pathways septicemia, surgical infections, pneumonia, biofilms, coagulase.
At risk for MRSA -weakened immune system -confinement in hospital or other healthcare institutions -live in close quarters -skin contact with infected body part of another person. secondary skin contact from something used by someone with infection
Acne is caused by and includes Propionibacterium acnes pore clogging and over production of sebum (oily secretion from sebaceous glands) (male hormones)
Acne is treated with topical treatments that enhance sloughing off of dead skin cells OR antibiotics i.e. tetracycline and erythromycin
cardiovascular system well protected from invaders to avoid septicemia
Chicken pox caused by and treatment Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3) /varicella-zoster virus (VZV) treatment with Acyclovir spread by respiratory droplets and direct contact with lesions
Chlamydia and what is it caused by Chlamydia trachomatis most common bacterial infection in the US (3x more women than men) -largely asymptomatic -favor cervical tissues -mimics gonorrhea -lymph nodes near lesion are filled w/ granulomas -grows intracellularly: evades immune resp
Cholera an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water
Cholera causative agent and vaccine Vibrio cholerae Vaxchora -only offer short-term immunity
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs sporadically in humans "Mad Cow Disease"
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) transmission direct or indirect contact with infected brain tissue
Diphtheria an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract -Symptoms -membranous pharyngitis -difficulty in swallowing -swelling of lymph glands
Diptheria causative and vaccine Corynebacterium diphtheriae (gram positive rod) -endotoxins produced when the bacteria are lysogenized by a phage (lysogenic conversion) Vaccine: Acellular DTaP
Gas gangrene and caused by Caused by: Clostridium perfringens Toxins: RBC disruption, edema and tissue destruction Symptoms: pain, edema, and bloody exudate myonecrosis-spread within blackened necrotic muscle tissue
Flat warts smooth, skin colored lesions that develop on the face, trunk, elbows, and knees -HPV-3,10,28,&49
Gonorrhea A bacterial STD that usually affects mucous membranes -increase in fluid discharge and scar tissue that leads to infertility
Gonorrhea caused by, transmission, and treatment Caused by: Neisseria gonorrhoeae -fimbriae for attachment to nonciliated cells and IgA protease Transmission: sexual contact in a genital or extragenital Treatment: Ceftriaxone and antibiotics
Hemorrhagic fever diseases zoonotic enveloped RNA viruses -virulence stimulated by disruption of clotting factors
Hemorrhagic fever diseases transmission by vectors or direct contact with bodily fluids
Impetigo bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture (superficial bacteria infection that causes skin peeling, flaking, and itching)
Impetigo caused by and treatment both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pyogenes is the initial inf/S. aureus is the secondary infection treated with mupirocin -exfoliative toxins A&B: breaks up epithelial cell-to-cell binding -highly contagious and transmittable
Infectious Mononucleosis (MONO) "Kissing disease" characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes, (lymphadenopathy) leukocytosis and fatigue -latency and spliceosomes increase its virulence: found in 90% of worlds population
Measles caused by, transmission and vaccine caused by: ssRNA virus from the Morbillivirus genus transmission: respiratory droplets- most contagious vaccine: MMR
Warts caused by and treatment HPV (human papilloma virus) -malignant and genital can cause cancer Treatment: Salicylic acid and surgery
Pertussis airborne bacterial infection that affects children younger than 6 years. -Catarrhal stage: int runny nose + cold stage that lasts 1-2 weeks -Paroxsymal stage: severe + uncontrollable dry cough w/ spasms -high incidence due to lack of vaccinations
Pertussis caused by and vaccine caused by Bordetella pertussis vaccine: DTAP
Pneumococcal pneumonia Severe inflammation of the lungs: primary cause of death in pre-antibiotic era
Pneumococcal pneumonia caused by and treatment caused by: Streptococcus pneumoniae -pathogenic strains have polysaccharide capsule to evade immune system treatment:penicillin (PCN) Pneumovax vaccine younger than 5
Poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis -infiltrates motor neurons of anterior horn of spinal cord -Humans are the only known reservoir
Poliomyelitus caused by and vaccine caused by - Three types of polioviruses named 1,2 and 3 - Non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses - Members of enterovirus subgroup of picornavirus family vaccine: Polio vaccine
Ringworm (Cutaneous Mycoses) Dermatophytes: Mycoses strictly confined to nonliving epidermal tissues and their derivatives Tinea: derives from the erroneous belief that these infections were caused by worms -invades and digests keratin (superficial infection)
Ringworm caused by and treatment caused by: Fungi: dermatophytes -Trichophyton -Microsporum -Epidermophyton treatment: topical anti-fungal drugs like miconazole
Rotavirus and what its caused by The most important global cause of infantile gastroenteritis. Primary viral cause of morbidity+ mortality 50% of diarrhea fecal-oral route transmission -oral live virus RotaTeq caused by: dsRNA virus w/inner and outer capsid
Salmonella and what its caused by acute diarrhea severe: high fever and septicemia (typhoid fever) mild: vomiting, diarrhea, and mucosal irratiation high infectious dose caused by: Salmonella enterica
Schistocoiasis The liver flukes -chronic liver swelling with eosinophilia -itchiness, fever, chills, diarrhea, and cough that eventually lead to heptomegaly and liver disease
Schistocoiasis caused by and treatment Caused by: Schistosoma Mansoni treatment: Praziquantel
Shigella dysenteriae causes the most severe form of dysentery (bloody diarrhea) -oral and direct contact: crowding and sanitation frequent watery and bloody stools, fever, and intense abd pain -invades the small intestine and not the large intestine
Shingles A reactivation of the chickenpox virus in the body symptoms of the virus that innervates dermatomes and ganglia -asymmetrical lesions on skin and trunk, pain, and facial paralysis treated by: Varivax vaccine
An effective treatment for a cutaneous mycosis like tinea pedis would be_________ miconazole
What is the antimicrobial enzyme found in sweat, tears, and saliva that can specifically break down peptidoglycan? Lysozyme
What is the most important defense factor for the skin? Antimicrobial peptides
Name the organism(s) most commonly associated with cellulitis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes
MRSA is decreasing in hospitals but increasing in the community
Warts are caused by papillomavirus
Herpesviruses can cause diseases except ________ smallpox
Dermatophytes are fungi that infect the epidermal tissue by invading and attacking _________ keratin
Poor contact lens hygiene is likely to get you a case of ________ Acanthamoeba keratitis
The enzyme catalase is associated with pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. T/F False
Fifth disease can be treated with acyclovir and prevented by immunization. T/F False
Measles can be eradicated because humans are the only reservoir. T/F True
The blistering and peeling of the skin in scalded skin syndrome are due to the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to produce catalase. T/F False
The normal skin biota is similar among different people. T/F False
What organism does not cause meningitis Clostridium tetani
What are not choices for antibiotic for viral meningitis is _______ Ceftriaxone ampicillin penicillin
Meningococcal miningitis is caused by ________ Neisseria meningitidis
What neurological disease is not caused by a prion? West Nile encephalitis
Cryptococcus neoformans is primarily transmitted by bird droppings
What is caused by an arbovirus? eastern equine encephalitis
CJD is caused by a prion
What food should you avid feeding a child under 1 year old because of potential botulism? honey
Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis is commonly acquired via swimming in ponds and streams
Which organism is responsible for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy? JC virus
Toxoplasma gondii is a bacterium. T/F False
Penicillin G is the first line of treatment for coccidioidomycosis T/F False
A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis can be made by analyzing cerebral spinal fluid. T/F True
In the U.S., dogs are a common reservoir for rabies. T/F False
The protein PrP is beneficial before it is transformed into an abnormal protein. T/F True
When bacteria flourish and grow in the bloodstream , this is _______ septicemia
What disease is caused by a retrovirus? HIV
The plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, is transmitted mainly by fleas
Rabbit fever is caused by Francisella tularensis
A distinctive bull eyes rash may result from a tick bite transmitting Lyme disease
Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae
The bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis can cause Ehrlichioses Lyme Disease
Cat scratch disease is effectively treated with azithromycin
Wool sorter's disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis
What is not a hemorrhagic fever? trench fever
Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by drinking contaminated milk. T/F True
Respiratory tract infection with Bartonella henslae is considered an AIDS defining condition. T/F False
Lyme disease is caused by Rickettsia ricketsii. T/F False
Babesiosis is caused by a protozoan transmitted by flease. T/F False
HIV in the U.S. is mainly transmitted via male homosexual sex. T/F True
The two most common groups of viruses associated with the common cold are Rhinoviruses Coronaviruses
What conditions is associate with Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngitis scarlet fever rheumatic fever
What is not a characteristic of STreptococcus pyogenes alpha-hemolytic
The common stain used to identify Mycobacterium species is acid fast stain
What is a technique that can be used to diagnose TB Tuberculin skin testing IGRA a PCR test
The DTaP vaccine does not provides protection against what disease pneumonia
What infections often has polymicrobial cause otitis media hospital acquired pneumonia sinusitis
What organism causes the vast majority of pneumonias that occur in AIDS patients Pneumocytstis jiroveci
The beta hemolysis of blood agar observed with Streptococcus pyogenes is due to the presence of streptolysin
An estimated _______ of the world population is infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis 1/3
Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent for whopping cough. T/F True
Mycoplasma pneumonia causes atypical pneumonia and can be diagnosed by serology. T/F True
BCG vaccine is used in other countries to prevent Legionnaires disease. T/F False
Respiratory syncytial virus is a respiratory infection associated with elderly people. T/F False
The flu shot can cause the flu in immunocompromised people. T/F False
Food moves down the GI tract through the action of peristalsis
The microorganism most associated with acute necrotizing ulcerative periodonitits is Treponema vincentii prevotella intermedia Helicobacter pylori
Gastric ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori
Virus family Paramyxoviridae contains viruses that causes measles and mumps
What bacteria is considered the most common cause of diarrhea in the U.S. Campylobacter
What microorganism is associated with Guillain Barre syndrome Campylobacter
This microorganism is commonly associated with fried rice and produces an emetic toxin Bacillus cereus
This endospore former contaminates meats as well as vegetables and is causative agent for gas gangrene Clostridium perfringens
The hepatitis virus is an enveloped DNA virus Hep B
what helminth life cycle is a grazing animal involved lifecycle C
Mumps is a disease that affects humans and several other species. T/F False
Giardia lamblia is a water borne, flagellated protozoan often associated with chronic diarrhea. T/F True
Pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficle. T/F True
Poor oral health has been associated with heart disease. T/F True
Enterobius vermucularis, commonly known as the pinworm, is a common cause of anal itching in young children in the U.S. T/F True
Cystitis is an infection of the bladder
A form of vaginitis is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis
Leptospirosis transmission to human is by contaminated soil or water
Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum
Yeast infections are caused by Candida albicans
This dimorphic fungus is a common cause of vaginitis Candida albicans
Approx ________ % of adult Americans have genital herpes 25%
Genital herpes transmission can be reduced or prevented except by the contraceptive pill
The drug Flagyl can be used to treat the protozoan infection Trichomonas vaginalis
Genital herpes can be treated with acyclovir. T/F True
Chancroid is caused by a fungus. T/F False
The vast majority of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus. T/F True
Chlamydia infection is the most common STI in the U.S. T/F False
Group B Streptococcus infection is generally silent in adult females. T/F True
Created by: vtlove116
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