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NRTC Med/Surg Ch. 20

Upper Respiratory Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes *Most commonly from rhinovirus "common cold" Rhinitis
Inflammation of the sinuses Sinusitis
Most common sinus site for Sinusitis Maxillary Sinus
expectorant used for sinusitis guaifenesin (Mucinex)
inflammation of throat caused by viruses/bacteria Pharyngitis
most serious form of pharyngitis. Symptoms: sore throat, dysphagia, fever, chills, HA, malaise, white patches on tonsils, swollen glands. Group A streptococci: Strep throat
antibiotic treatment for Strep throat is penicillin
how long does a C&S take to get results? 3 days
a significant number of pts are allergic to penicillin (remember to ask about allergies!). what antibiotic could be an alternative Azithromycin (z-pack)
important instruction to give to all pts taking antibiotics Complete entire prescription of antibiotics
chronic tonsillar infection may lead to partial upper airway obstruction
chronic adenoidal infection may lead to otitis media
listed items of pt edu after tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy report signs of bleeding (24-48 hrs) gargle c warm saline liquid/very soft diet (avoid spicy, textured, citrus, milky foods)
inflammation/swelling of mucous membranes that line larynx Laryngitis
complete loss of voice aphonia
persistent hoarseness (2 weeks) could be a sign of laryngeal cancer
nosebleed from rupture of tiny capillaries in nasal mucous membrane Epistaxis
Medical management for epistaxis Direct continuous pressure(5-10 mins), ice pack, nasal packing, and topical vasoconstrictors
Your 17 year old pt has severe epistaxis due to blunt trauma to the nasal cavity during a soccer game. List two vasoconstrictors that the doctor may prescribe for this pt. Phenylephrine and norepinephrine
who can remove nasal packing and balloon inflated catheter the doctor
deviated septum, nasal polyps, and hypertrophied turbinates are Nasal obstructions
How do you test for cerebral spinal fluid after a nose fracture? CSF - Dextrostix
What substance is a Dextrostix testing for? Glucose
Causes for laryngeal trauma/obstruction motor vehicle accidents, blunt trauma, allergic reaction, and CHOKING!
Laryngeal obstruction is a medical emergency
what maneuver do you use when someone is choking on food? Abdominal thrust (formally Heimlich)
recurrent/frequent episodes of upper airway obstruction and reduced ventilation; cessation of breathing for at least 10 secs. Sleep Apnea
what is the difference between obstructive and central sleep apnea? obstructive: usually caused by tongue over airway central: brain fails to signal lungs to breathe
regurgitation of swallowed air and formation of words Esophageal speech
throat vibrator held against neck, projects sound into mouth Artificial (electric) larynx
surgical insertion of prosthesic larynx Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP)
provides constant airway pressure during inspiration and expiration CPAP
two levels of pressure - inspiratory and expiratory airway pressures Bipap
surgical procedure making an opening into trachea tracheotomy
surgical opening into trachea which a tracheostomy/laryngectomy tube is inserted Tracheostomy
what is used to put an outer cannula into a tracheostomy obturator
what should always be kept at a beside after a tracheostomy? Suctioning and tracheal dilator
pulling/suction force, on external chest negative pressure (iron lung)
pushing air into lungs; requires intubation (endotracheal tube) most common type of air pressure for intubation positive pressure
what types of patients receive endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation pt c resp difficulties, comatose pts, pts under general anesthesia
how often should you auscultate lung sounds on a pt c endotracheal intubation/ mechanical ventilation q 30 - 60 minutes
accidental removal of endotracheal tube may cause laryngospasm
Created by: LBerkey