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Chemistry Sem 2

Atomic Structure & Reactions

What sub-particles make up an atom? Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
What is nomenclature? The chemical symbol that is used to represent an element.
What is the Atomic number? The Atomic number is the smaller number and indicates the number of protons or electrons
What is the Mass number? The Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons
What is the Nucleus? The centre of the atom. It contains all the weight of the atom. Protons and Neutrons are in the nucleus.
What are the electron shells and what do they do? The electrons move around the nucleus of the atom. They are very light and do not contribute to the mass of the atom.
What are the 3 subatomic charges? Protons: positive charge Neutrons: neutral charge Electrons: negative charge
How many electrons can fit in each shell? K:2, L:8, M:18, N:32
What is a Valence electron? The number of electrons in the outmost shell
What are Isotopes? Isotopes are atoms of the same elements that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. (all isotopes have the same atomic number)
True or false are all isotopes stable? False
What is a stable isotopes? A stable isotope is one that does not emit radiation, or, if it does its half-life is too long to have been measured
What is a chemical reaction? A chemical change has taken place when a new substance is formed
What are the signs of a chemical change? -Smell of a new substance -Permanent colour change - Gas is given off -Change in temperature indicating energy is produced or absorbed. -Precipitate or solid is formed (mixing two substances together) -One metal deposits on another
What are the signs of a physical change? -Changes shape -Breaks into smaller pieces -Dissolves -Mixes with another substance
Reactants and Products Reactants are the substances present at the start of the chemical reaction and products are the new substances that are formed
How do chemical reactions change?
What is an endothermic reaction? An endothermic reaction is a reaction that absorbs heat, taking it from the surroundings and making them feel colder. Endothermic reactions need energy to proceed and they get their energy from what is around them
What is an Exothermic reaction? While endothermic reactions absorb energy, exothermic reactions release energy.During the reaction, energy is released into the surroundings, usually as heat and or light.
Created by: CharlotteHewish