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8th Chemistry

Chemistry: Atomic Structure & Periodic Table

TermDefinition
atom The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still have the properties of that element.
proton A positively – charged particle that is located in the nucleus of an atom.
neutron A particle with no charge that is located in the nucleus of the atom.
electron A negatively – charged particle that is located outside of the nucleus of the atom.
nucleus The center of an atom, containing the protons and neutrons.
electron cloud The region inside an atom where electrons may be found.
energy level A specific area in an atom at a definite distance from the nucleus.
valence electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom.
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
atomic mass The average mass of one atom of an element.
electric charge The sum of the charges within an atom.
compound A substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
Periodic Table of Elements A chart where all of the elements are arranged according to their atomic number and properties
group A vertical column of elements on the periodic table.
period A horizontal row of elements on the periodic table.
physical property A property of a substance that can be observed without changing the identity of the matter.
chemical property A property of a substance that is based on its ability to react with another substance.
metal An element that is shiny, ductile, malleable, and a good conductor.
nonmetal An element that is not shiny, ductile or malleable and is not a good conductor.
metalloid An element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals.
chemical reaction A change that takes place when two or more substances interact to form new substances.
chemical formula A description that uses numbers and element symbols to represent the atoms that make up a compound.
chemical equation A way of writing changes in the arrangement of atoms during a chemical reaction, using chemical symbols.
balanced equation A chemical equation in which the number of atoms of each substance are equal for both the products and the reactants.
reactant A starting material in a chemical reaction.
product A substance formed from a chemical reaction.
Law of Conservation of Mass It states that mass is neither created nor destroyed, it can only change forms
exothermic A change that results in energy being given off.
endothermic A change that results in energy being absorbed
conduction The transfer of heat from a warmer substance to a cooler one through direct contact
convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or a gas.
radiation The transfer of heat through matter or space as electromagnetic waves.
heat The transfer of thermal energy between objects that are at different temperatures.
specific heat The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1° C in temperature.
thermal energy The total heat energy of the particles that make up a substance.
temperature A measure of how hot or cold something is.
interaction The exchange of matter and/or energy between two objects or systems.
matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
energy The ability to do work.
molecule Two or more bonded atoms.
Created by: tneal1
 

 



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