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Anatomy & P chp 3

Cellular level of organization

what is the cell theory? all living things are made up of cells
robert hooke coined term cell by cork
Dujardin cytoplasm
Robert brown nucleus
what do robert brown, dujardin, and robert hooke have in common they believed cells are the structual units and function units
virchow cells came from pre-existing cells
schleden plants - all living things are made up of cells
schwann animals- all living things are made up of cells
cytology study & function of cells
Cell biology incorperates aspects of biology, chemistry, and physics
two most common methods used to study cells electron microscopy and Light microscopy
two classes of cells symatic & sex
what are the two fluids in symatic cells extracellular fluid, and interstitual fluid
where do you find extracellular fluid around the cell, watery medium
where do you find interstitual fulid found in most tissues
what is in the cytoplasm cytosol and organells
another name for the cell membrane plasmalemma membrane
what is the cell membranes functions physical isolation, regulates what goes in & out, sensitivity, and structure & support
what is the membrane structure like thin & delicate, has lipids, protiens, and carbohydrates and has phosopholipids that are the largest part of the membrane
what makes the membrane lipid flexable cholestrol
what is in the membrane lipid phosopholipid bilayer, hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails
where is the hydrophilic head on the surface
where is the hydrophobic tail on the inside, repels water
Anchoring protein attach to cell membranes to one another or to internal or external structures
Recognition proteins Identify cell & prevent attack by immune system
Enzymes catalyze interacellular or extracellular reactions
Recepter Protins Binds to specific ligands in extracellular fluid
Carrier proteins more solute across membrane; may or may not require atp
leak channel permit continus passive movement of water & ions
Gated channels can open or close to regulate ion movement
What are the three types of Memberane Carbohydrates -Proteoglycan -Glycoproteins -Glycolipids
Membrane Permiablility Passive or Active
Passive no use of energy
Active Use energy
4 major categories of transport 1-Diffusion 2-filtration 3-Carrier Mediated 4-Vesicullar
Diffusion area of high con. to low con.
Things that can effect diffusion -Distance -Size of Gradient -Molecular size -tempature -electrical forces
Osmosis diffusion of water across cell membrane - Passive
Osmolarity total solute conc. in an aqueous solution
Types of solutions Isosmotic, hyperosmotic, and hyposotic
Isosmotic equal concentration, salt=water, no change
Hyperosmotic higher solute, salt > water, swells
hyposmotic lower solute, salt < water, shrinks (crention)
Co transport 2 substances in same direction at same time (sympoet)
Counter transport 1 substance in & one out (antiport)
what are the two major types of carrier transport facilitated diffusion and active transport
Facilited diffusion mcl binds to receptor site
active transport ion pumps, sodium potassim exchange pump (NA in K out)
Vescular transport use of vessicles
bulk transport 3 types, receptor meditated, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis
endosytosis into cell
Pinocytosis cell drinking (liquid)
Phagocytosis Cell eating (solid)
Ecosytosis discharge of materials out of a cell by vesicle binding to membrane
Transmembrane potential potential difference across a membrane
Inside slightly - move out +
outside slightly + move in -
Resting potential Transmembrane potential in an undisterbed cell, between -10mv and -100mv
contains high K ions, low Na ions (ion pump) Cytosol
Cytosol things suspended proteins, small amount of CHO's & large amounts of amino acids & lipids, Inclusion
Inclusion wont disolve, no one knows what it does but if removed, cell will die
Two categories of organelles Nonmembranous, membranous
what is the genetic code method of info storage in dna strands of nuclus
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil RNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine DNA
Protein synthesis Transcription and translation
transcription occurs in nucleous, RNA from DNA
Translation occurs in cytoplasm in Ribosome, proteins from mRNA On rough ER
Cytoskeleton Ctructure to cell, Nonmembrane
Microvilli increases surface area, non membrane
Centriloes cell division, non membrane
Cilla Movement, non membrane
Flagella Movement, whip like, Non membrane
Ribosome protein synthesis, non membrane
Mitochondria membrane
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
golgi apparatus membrane
lysosomes membrane
peroxisomes membrane
nucleus membrane
2 parts of cell division mitosis and meiosis
mitosis 2 cells identical, 1 cell division
meiosis production of sex cells, 4 cells, different, 2 cell division
Created by: fffirecracker37