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traits characteristics that an organism can pass from parent to offspring
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics the scientific study of heredity
purebred an organism that always produces offspring with the same form of trait as the parent
genes factors that control traits
alleles different forms of a gene
dominant allele the allele whose trait always shows up in the organism where the allele is present
recessive allele the allele whose trait will show up only if the organism does not have the dominant allele
greagan mendel 1851 father of genetics
probability the likelihood that something will occur
punnet square a chart that shows the result from the genetic cross
phenotype an organisms physical apperance
genotype an organisms genetic makeup
heterozygous an organism that has the two of the same alleles for a trait
heterozygous an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
codominance the conditions where the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive
hybrid an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
meiosis the process where chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism
sperm male sex cell
egg female sex cell
zygote fertilized egg
chromosome theory of inheritance states that genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
the genetic code the main function of genes is to control the production of protiens
the genetic code proteins help determine the size shape and other traits of an organism
the genetic code nitrogen bases form ''rungs'' of dna ladder the ladder of the nitrogen bases along a gene form a section of the genetic code that specifies what type of protein to produce
protein synthesis the production of proteins
messenger rna rna that copies the coded message from dna in the nucleus and carries the message in the nucleus
transfer RNA carries amino acid and adds them to the growing protien chain
mutation any change that occurs in a gene or chromosome
Created by: telmor