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Exam 3


Removal of all microorganisms sterilization
Sterilizers removes all microbes, including what? endospores & viruses
Elimination of most or all pathogens disinfection
Used on living tissues antiseptics
Brief heating to reduce number of spoilage organisms, destroy pathogens Pasteurization
reduces pathogens to levels considered safe to handle Decontamination
substantially reduces microbial population that meets accepted health standards (not specific) Sanitization
process of delaying spoilage of foods and other perishable products preservation
Irreversibly denatures proteins moist heat
destroys most microorganisms and viruses (no sterilization) boiling
destroys pathogens, spoilage organisms pasteurization
Which products have HTST? milk (72) & ice cream (82)
Used to sterilize using pressurized steam Autoclave
Sterilization typically takes place at _______ degrees Celsius and 15 psi in _____ min: 121, 15
Industrial sized autoclave retort
Designed to destroy Clostridium botulinum endospores commercial canning processC
Cells growing in low-acid anaerobic conditions produce what? botulinum toxin
Less effective than moist heat; longer times and much higher temps necessary dry heat
retains bacteria in the filter filtration
the type of filter that has small pore sizes and is thin: membrane filter
can remove e- from atoms, destroys DNA, damages cytoplasmic membranes, and reacts with O2 to produce reactive oxygen species ionizing radiation
Destroys microbes directly, damages DNA, but has poor penetrating power UV radiation
Kill by generated heat, not directly Microwave
Used in pasteurization of commercial foods, destroys microbes by denaturing proteins and altering cell permeability high pressure
kill vegetative bacteria and fungi, denature essential proteins, damages lipid membranes, not reliable against endospores and some naked viruses alcohols
form chemical bonds that cross-link and inactivate proteins and nucleic acids aldehydes
used as gas or as formalin to kill bacteria and inactive viruses for vaccines formaldehyde
oxidize proteins/cellular components halogens
destroys all microorganisms and viruses, used as a disinfectant, and is caustic to skin and mucous membranes chlorine
combine with sulfhydryl groups of enzymes/proteins which destroy folding, high con. are too toxic to be used medically metal compounds
were required to prevent Neisseria gonorhoeae infections acquired during birth silver nitrate eyedrops
Combo of mercury, tin, copper, and others were once widely used as ________ preservatives
powerful oxidizers used as sterilants peroxygens
more potent than H2O2 peracetic acid
This is one of the earliest disinfectants that destroy cytoplasmic membranes and denature proteins, but leave antimicrobial residue phenol
These are used in soaps and lotions Triclosan & hexachlorophene
cationic detergents that are used to disinfect food prep surfaces (nontoxic) quaternary Ammonium compounds
Benzoic sorbic, citric, and propionic are ________ acids that inhibit metabolism and alter cell membrane function weak organic
Used in processed meats, inhibit endospore germination and vegetative cell growth nitrate & nitrite
What type of storage can Psychrotrophs and psychrophilic organisms only grow in low temp storage
what is the process of cellular plasmolysis water exits bacterial cells
what is lyophilization freeze drying foods
Who was the scientist that identified mold Penicillium excreting compound toxic to Staphylococcus in 1928? Alexander Fleming
What was the first antibiotic in use? Penicillin G
Who purified streptomycin from soil bacterium Streptomyces griseus? Selman Waksman
Inhibit bacterial growth bacteriostatic drugs
kill bacteria bacteriocidal drugs
Affect a wide range of bacteria broad-spectrum antimicrobials
Affect a limited range of pathogens and are less disruptive to normal microflora narrow-spectrum antimicrobials
Target specific bacterial processes and structures antibacterial drugs
Weaken cell walls and lead to cell lysis Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and other B-Lactam Drugs
Derived from fungus Acremonium cephalosporium Cephalosporins
Blocks cell wall synthesis (growth) and binds to peptide side chain of Peptidoglycan subunit prior to its being added to growing cell wall Vancomycin
toxicity limits this to topical applications Bacitracin
Interferes w/ transport of peptidoglycan precursors across membrane (bactoprenol) Bacitracin
These type of antibacterial drugs exploit differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes protein synthesis inhibition
Irreversibly bind to 30S ribosomal subunit, causing it to distort and malfunction and blocks initiation of translation Aminoglycosides
Reversibly bind to 30S subunit and block tRNA attachment which prevents translation Tetracyclines
reversibly bind to 50S subunit and prevent continuation of translation Macrolides
Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit; blocks translation Chloramphenicol
Bind 50S ribosomal subunit and block continuation of translation Lincosamides
Enzymes that maintain supercoiling of DNA topoisomerases
Inhibit topoisomerases and resistance is usually do to alteration in DNA gyrase target fluoroquinolones
What is S. aureus natural habitat on humans? moist mucous membrane inside nostrils
How did Eichenwald control outbreaks of 80/81 in neonates? he sent out vials of the 502A strain to hospitals around the world (inoculation of newborn's nostrils/umbilical stump)
What was the first semi-synthetic antibiotic? methicillin
What is meant by "Here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place" no matter how many antibiotics are made to counteract the effects of the disease, it will never go away
What is meant by broad-spectrum antibiotics? antibiotics that can fight against any kind of infection
What are two advantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics? one-size-fits-all & less expensive/ time consuming
What are two disadvantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics? bacteria became more resistant
How did the Lederberg's experiment demonstrate that antibiotic-resistance genes existed before the use of antibiotics? they used swatches of velvet mounted on round wooden blocks, each one the size of a petri dish. They found that they could pick up hundreds of pinprick sized colonies of bacteria from one petri dish filled w/ bacteria and then deposit them, in the exact
Why are antibiotics a powerful force for bacterial evolution? they can only fight against non-resistant bacteria and leave the resistant ones to repopulate, giving rise to a newly resistant colony
Why did the medical strategy of using multiple drugs (cocktails) to get around resistance to antibiotics not work? a strain already resistant to one antibiotic would spinoff a substrain that would be resistant to another antibiotic as well
How do bacteria exchange genes using "fertility factors" ? F-factor directs the cell to build a pilus, a kind of bacterial penis that blebs out from the bacterium's outer membrane to form a bridge w/ another bacterium and allow the passage of the entire plasmid, along w/ whatever bonus genetic material it may hld
What is a plasmid? ringlet of bonus genes
Does a bacterial cell need a plasmid to grow and divide? yes
In terms of antibiotic resistance what is the significance of Zinder's work with bacteriophage lambda? Zinder infected colonies of drug-resistant Salm. and mixed them w/ uninfected/drug-susceptible strains in a petri dish which resulted in phages picking up resist. genes and depositing them, in working order, in the next round of bacteria they infected
What is the name of Zinder's process of gene exchange? transduction
What antibiotics target peptidoglycan transpeptidases? Penicillin G & V, methicillin, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbenicillin
What antibiotic targets peptidoglycan peptide subunits? Vancomycin
What antibiotics target membranes? polymyxin B & E
What aminoglycoside antibiotic targets 16S rRNA of 30S ribosome subunit? streptomycin
Which macrolide antibiotics target peptidyl transferase site of 50S ribosome subunit? erythromycin & azithromycin
Which tetracycline antibiotic targets the 30S ribosome subunit doxycycline
Which antibiotic targets the 23S rRNA of 50S ribosome subunit chloramphenicol
What rifamycin antibiotic targets the B-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase rifampin
What fluoroquinolone antibiotic targets gram-negative DNA gyrase or gram-positive topoisomerase IV? ciprofloxacin
What antibiotic class group targets dihydropteroate synthetase (folic acid pathway) sulfonamides
Which antibiotic targets dihydrofolate reductase (folic acid pathway) ? trimethoprim
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and other B-Lactam drugs all have …: B- Lactam ring
Catalyzes formation of peptide cross bridges between adjacent PG layers; disrupt cell wall synthesis transpeptidase
Only toxic to anaerobic microorganisms; binds DNA causing breaks in DNA (chromosome) Metronidazole
Sulfonamides are called ______________: sulfa drugs
Sulfonamides are structurally similar to substrate _______: PABA
Target drug-resistant gram-positives Daptomycin
Isoniazid inhibits _________ _______ synthesis: mycolic acid
Ethambutol inhibits _________ required for synthesis of other cell wall components: enzymes
Routinely used to determine susceptibility of bacterial strain to drugs by the pharmaceutical industry Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion test
Penicillinase & Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are all ________________ enzymes: drug-inactivating
Pumps the drug back out of the target cell efflux pumps
Uses energy; endergonic anabolism
Makes energy; exergonic catabolism
Energy available to do work free energy
In this reaction, reactants have more free energy than products exergonic
In this reaction, products have more free energy than reactants endergonic
Series of chemical reactions that convert starting compound to end product metabolic pathways
Speed up conversion of substrate into product by lowering activation energy biological catalysts
Acceptor of free energy ADP
Cells produce ATP by adding _____ to _____ using energy: Pi to ADP
Energy released from ATP yields what two products? ADP and Pi
Proton motive force is related to which cellular process that generates ATP? oxidative phosphorylation
Exergonic reactions are related to which cellular process that generates ATP? substrate-level phosphorylation
Which cellular process involves sunlight used to create proton motive force photophosphorylation
This is the energy source that becomes oxidized electron donor
This receives the electrons and becomes reduced electron acceptor
Electrons are first transferred to electron carriers, which represent _____________: reducing power
NAD+/NADH & FAD/FADH2 are all...: electron carriers (acceptors)
Intermediates of catabolism that can be used in anabolism precursor metabolites (carbon skeleton)
Biosynthesis represents which type of metabolism? anabolism
Oxidation represents which type of metabolism? catabolism
Transfers electrons from glucose to electron transport chain (ETS) respiration
PMF harvested by ATP synthase to make ATP via ________________: oxidative phosphorylation
If cells run out of oxidized electron carriers (NAD+), _____________ will stop and ___________ will take over Glycolysis will stop & fermentation will take over
Uses pyruvate + enzymes to regenerate NAD+ Fermentation
Once fermentation has regenerated NAD+, __________ can continue as a source of ATP for growth glycolysis
Assist enzymes in becoming a specific shape cofactors
Include magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron Cofactors
Organic cofactors are : coenzymes
____________ inhibition involves binding to ALLOSTERIC site: Noncompetitive
In _______ inhibition, regulatory molecule is usually the end product of the pathway: feedback
____________ inhibition involves binding to the ACTIVE site: competitive
Blocks substrate from binding to active site of enzyme concentration dependent
Sulfa drugs are an example of..: concentration dependents
Completes the oxidation of glucose (CO2) Krebs Cycle (TCA)
Set of membrane-embedded molecules that can be oxidized and reduced with electrons/protons: electron transport chain
In anaerobic respiration, what are the terminal electron acceptors? S0, SO42-, NO3-
Allows protons to flow down gradient (from outside of cell membrane to inside the cell) ATP synthase
This lacks an electron transport chain so fermentation is its only option streptococcus pneumoniae
These have the following metabolic steps: Glycolysis, Transition step, Krebs Cycle, and ETS to oxygen Obligate aerobes
These have the following metabolic steps: Glycolysis, Transition step, Krebs Cycle, ETS to inorganic molecule other than oxygen or just Glycolysis & Fermentation Obligate anaerobes
This oxygen class only involves Glycolysis & Fermentation aerotolerant anaerobes
These digest starch amylases
These digest cellulose cellulases
Hydrolyzed by proteases; amino group deaminated Proteins
These are produced by anaerobic resp. from inorganic molecules (sulfate, nitrate) serving as terminal electron acceptors hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3)
Created by: tparker31
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