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Bio Lab 24&25 Vocab

TermDefinition
Akinete An enveloped, thick-walled, non-motile, dormant cell formed by filamentous, hetero-cyst forming cyanobacteria under the order Nostocales and Stigonematales; resistant to cold and desiccation
Autotroph An organism able to build all the complex organic molecules that it requires as its own food source, using only simple inorganic compounds
Bacillus (pl. bacilli) A rod shaped bacterium
Binary Fission Asexual reproduction by division of one cell or body into two equal or nearly equal parts
Cell Wall The rigid, outermost layer of the cells of plants, some protists, and most bacteria; the cell wall surrounds the cell membrane
Chlorophyll a Light-absorbing pigment in photosynthesis; Absorbs light in the violet-blue and the red ranges of the visible light spectrum
Coccus (pl. cocci) Any spherical or roughly spherical bacterium
Colony Several individual organisms of the same species living together in close association; a cluster of identical cells on the surface of a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell
Decomposer Organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms and release carbon and nitrogen back into the soil, air, or water.
Domain Archae Single-celled prokaryotes composed of branched hydrocarbon chains; some are extremophiles
Domain Bacteria Prokaryotic cells composed of membranes of unbranched fatty acid chains attached to glycerol by ester linkages; cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Gram-negative Do not retain the crystal-violet stain; contain a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides. Appear pink or red
Gram-positive Appear dark blue or violet due to the amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall
Gram stain Staining technique that divides bacteria into gram-negative or gram-positive based on retention of a violet dye. Differences in staining are due to cell wall construction.
Heterocyst A large, transparent, thick-walled cell found in the filaments of certain blue-green algae and in certain fungi; the site of nitrogen fixation
Heterotroph An organism that cannot derive energy from photosynthesis or inorganic chemicals, and so must feed on other plants and animals, obtaining chemical energy by degrading their organic molecules.
Hormogonium (pl. hormogonia) Motile filaments of cells formed by some cyanobacteria during asexual reproduction
Necridium (pl. necridia) A weaker cell in a filament where detachment occurs
Nitrogen Fixation The chemical processes by which atmospheric nitrogen is assimilated into organic compounds, especially by certain microorganisms as part of the nitrogen cycle
Nucleoid Region The area of a prokaryotic cell, usually near the center, that contains the genome in the form of DNA compacted with protein
Peptidoglycan A component of the cell wall of bacteria, consisting of carbohydrate polymers linked by protein cross-bridges
Phycocyanin Any of a group of blue photosynthetic pigments present in cyanobacteria; accessory pigment to chlorophyll
Phycoerythrin Any of a group of red photosynthetic pigments present in red algae and some cyanobacteria; accessory to the main chlorophyll pigments
Root nodule Organs induced on most species of legume plants by symbiotic, Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Sensitivity plate Determines the susceptibility of bacteria to an antibiotic
Sheath A protective covering ; a secreted tubular structure formed around a bundle of filaments
Spirillum (pl. spirilla) A bacterium with a rigid spiral structure
Trichome A hairlike growth from an epidermal cell; glandular trichomes secrete oils that deter insects
Zone of inhibition The clear region around the paper disc saturated with an antimicrobial agent on the agar surface; indication of the effective inhibition
Antheridium A sperm-producing organ
Blade The broad, expanded part of a leaf
Carpospore A diploid spore produced by red algae
Cell (plasma) membrane The semipermeable phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell
Chloroplast A cell-like organelle present in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and carries out photosynthesis
Conceptacle Site of sperm and egg production in algae
Conjugation tube A slender tube in certain bacteria and algae that connects two individuals during conjugation and through which the transfer of genetic materials occur
Contractile vacuole In protists and some animals, a clear fluid-filled vacuole that takes up water from within the cell and then contracts, releasing it to the outside through a pore in a cyclical manner; functions primarily in osmoregulation and excretion
Cystocarp The fruiting structure produced in the red algae after fertilization; consists of filaments bearing carpospores
Daughter colony A smaller, secondary colony growing on the surface of an older colony; may have characteristics different from those of the mother colony
Flagellum A long, threadlike structure protruding from the surface of a cell and used in locomotion
Float (bladder) Gas filled sacs that allow algae to float on the water surface, maximizing exposure to sunlight
Frustule The silicified cell wall of a diatom, consisting of two valves or overlapping halves
Holdfast An organ or structure of attachment that anchors aquatic organisms to the substrate; similar to the root of a land plant
Nucleus The membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal DNA
Oogonium The female sex organ of certain algae; typically a rounded cell or sac containing one or more oospheres
Paramylon granule A membrane-bound crystal similar to starch stored in Euglena
Parent colony Several individual organisms of the same species living together in close association
Pellicle A tough, flexible covering in ciliates and euglenoids
Photoreceptor A light-sensitive sensory cell
Raphe A longitudinal ridge on diatoms or seeds
Receptacle The tissues near the end of reproductive stems that encase the reproductive organs
Reservoir A cavity or part that holds some fluid or secretion
Spermatangium The male gamete-producing reproductive organ in certain algae
Stigma Light-sensitive eyespot of some algae
Stipe A stalk or stem of seaweed
Tetraspore A spore occurring in groups of four in red alga; two of which produce male plants and two female
Transverse groove Groove-like structure around the equator of an organism that may possess a flagellum
Vegetative cell A cell of bacterium or unicellular alga that is actively growing rather than forming spores
Zygospore The thick-walled diploid resting cell of certain fungi and algae, arising from the fusion of two similar gametes
Zygote The diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization)
Created by: allisonepp