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Chapter 29 Potter


recurrent, altered state of consciousness that occurs for sustained periods sleep
24-hour, day-night cycle known as diurnal or circadian rhythm
_____________ affect all circadian rhythms, including seep-wake cycle light & temperature
External factors such as _____________ also affect circadian rhythms. social activities & temperature
natural secretion of ________________________ supports circadian Rhythm in sleep-wake cycle by helping to ensure a smooth transition from wakefulness to sleep melatonin
Every person has a _____________ that is normally synchronized by exposure to light & activity. biological clock
_____________ is synchronized w/other body functions normal rhythm of sleep
Normal variations in _____________ correlate w/sleep-wake patterns. body temperature
When sleep-wake cycle becomes _____________, other physiological functions change as well. disrupted
Failure to obtain _____________ adversely affects a person's overall health. sufficient sleep
The _____________ of the sleep-wake state depends on the interrelationship between _____________ that intermittently activated & suppress brain's higher centers to control sleep & wakefulness. control & regulation; two cerebral mechanisms
The neurons in the _____________ maintain a state of wakefulness. brain stem reticular formation
The neurons in the _____________ maintain a state of sleep. parasympathetic control centers
As you fall asleep, stimuli to _____________ in the upper brain stem decline. reticular activating system (RAS)
As you fall asleep, gradually the _____________ takes over, causing sleep. bulbar synchronizing region (BSR)
Normal sleep involves two phases: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep & rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
During _____________ an individual progresses through four stages during a typical 90-minute sleep cycle. NREM
The quality of sleep from stage _____________ becomes increasingly deep. stage 1 through stage 4
Lighter sleep is characteristic of _____________, when a person is more easily arousable. stages 1 & 2
_____________ involve a deeper sleep called slow-wave sleep from which a person is more difficult to arouse. stages 3 & 4
_____________ sleep is phase at the end of each 90-minute sleep cycle. REM
During _____________ sleep there is increased brain activity associated w/rapid eye movements & muscle atonia. REM
_____________ sleep is not divided into stages. REM
Normally an adult's routine sleep pattern begins w/_____________ during which the person is aware only of a gradually developing sleepiness. pre-sleep period
Pre-sleep period normally lasts _____________. 10 to 30 minutes
Individuals experiencing difficulty falling asleep often remain in _____________ for an hour or more. pre-sleep period
Once asleep, the person usually passes through _____________ complete sleep cycles, each consisting of four stages of NREM sleep & a period of REM sleep. four to six
The cyclical pattern of sleep usually progresses from stage 1 through stage 4 of NREM, followed by a _____________, ending with a period of REM sleep. reversal from stage 4 to 3 to 2
With each successive cycle of sleep, _____________ sleep shorten & the period of _____________ lengthens. stages 3 and 4 of NREM; REM
_____________ lasts up to 60 minutes during the last sleep cycle. REM sleep
A sleeper fluctuates back & forth for short intervals between _____________ before entering REM sleep. NREM stages 2, 3, & 4
The _____________ depends on the total amount of time that the person spends sleeping. number of sleep cycles
The purpose of sleep is still unclear; one theory suggests that sleep is a time of _____________ for the next period of wakefulness. restoration & preparation
During _____________ sleep, biological functions slow. NREM
A healthy adult's normal heart rate throughout the day averages _____________ beats per minute. 70 to 80
During sleep the heart rate normally falls to _____________ beats per minute or less, thus preserving cardiac function. 60
Sleep is also a part of maintaining normal _____________ & optimal _____________. biological processes; immune performance
During _____________ sleep, the body releases human growth hormone for the repair and renewal of epithelial and specialized cells such as brain cells. NREM stage 4
_____________ and _____________ for the renewal of tissues also occur during rest and sleep. protein synthesis; cell division
_____________ sleep appears to be important for cognitive restoration. REM
Researchers associate REM sleep with changes in _____________ blood flow, increased _____________ activity, increased _____________ consumption, & _____________ release. cerebral; cortical; oxygen; epinephrine
During REM sleep, the changes in cerebral blood flow, increased cortical activity, increased oxygen consumption, & epinephrine release assists with _____________ & _____________. memory storage; learning
The dreams of _____________ sleep are more vivid & elaborate than those of _____________ sleep, and researchers believe them to be functionally important to the consolidation of long-term memory and emotional healing. REM; NREM
_____________ dreams progress in content throughout the night from dreams about current events to emotional dreams of childhood or the past. REM
_____________ help people sort out immediate concerns or erase certain fantasies or nonsensical memories. dreams
B/c most dreams are _____________, many people have little dream recall & do not believe they dream at all. forgotten
To remember a dream, a person must _____________ about it on awakening. consciously think
People who recall dreams vividly usually awaken just after a period of _____________ sleep. REM
The neonate & infant up to the age of 3 months average about _____________ of sleep a day. 16 hours
Approximately _____________ of neonate's/infant's sleep is REM sleep, which stimulates the higher brain centers. 50%
Infants usually develop a nighttime pattern of sleep by _____________ of age. 3 months
Infants sometimes take several naps during the day but usually sleep an average of _____________ during the night. 9 to 11 hours
Infants spend about _____________ of sleep time in the REM cycle. 30%
By the age of _____________, children usually sleep through the night and take daily naps. 2 years
Total sleep for 2 year-olds averages _____________ a day. 12 hours
Some children stop taking naps altogether at _____________. age 3
The percentage of _____________ sleep continues to fall as the toddler grows. REM
_____________ are often unwilling to go to bed at night. toddlers
A preschooler sleeps an average of _____________ a night with about _____________ is REM. 12 hours; 20%
By the age of _____________, the preschooler rarely takes daytime naps except in cultures where a siesta is the custom. 5
The _____________ usually has difficulty relaxing or quieting down after long, active days. preschooler
A _____________ also has problems with bedtime fears, waking during the night, and nightmares. preschooler
The _____________ child usually does not require a nap. school-age
A _____________ averages 11 to 12 hours of sleep nightly. 6-year-old
An 11-year-old averages about _____________ hours of sleep nightly. 9 to 10
Encouraging quiet activities usually persuades the _____________ to go to bed. 6- or 7-year old
The _____________ often resists sleeping b/c of an unawareness of fatigue or a need to be independent. older child
Adolescents need between _____________ of sleep. 8.5 & 9.5 hours
Although sleep needs should go up, typical teenagers get about _____________ of sleep per night. 7.5 hours
School demands, after-school social activities, & part-time jobs _____________ time for sleep. lessen
_____________ go to bed later & rise earlier during the high school years. Teens
B/c of lifestyle demands that shorten the time available for sleep & physiological needs, teens often experience _____________. excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
Poor school performance, vulnerability to accidents, behavioral problems, & increased use of alcohol & stimulants are the result of _____________ due to insufficient sleep. EDS
Most _____________ average 6 to 8.5 hours of sleep a night, but this varies. young adults
_____________ rarely take regular naps. young adults
Young adults spend approximately _____________ of sleep time in REM sleep, which remains consistent throughout the remainder of life. 20%
During _____________ the total time spent sleeping at night begins to decline. middle adulthood
The amount of _____________ begins to fall during middle adulthood and a decline that continues with advancing age. stage 4 sleep
More than 50% of persons _____________ report regular problems with sleep. age 65 or older
Older adults spend more time in _____________ and have less _____________ sleep. stage 1; stage 3 & stage 4 NREM
Some older adults have almost no _____________, or deep sleep. NREM stage 4
Episodes of _____________ sleep tend to shorten as an older adult. REM
_____________ awaken more often during the night, and it takes more time for them to fall asleep. older adults
Older adult _____________ (the amount of time asleep given the amount of time in bed) is reduced. sleep efficiency
_____________ increase the number of naps taken during the day. older adults
Often _____________ do not feel refreshed after sleeping. older adults
Tests show that older adults do not have an _____________ for sleep, but have a reduction in the ability to sleep. increased need
As people age, their circadian clock advances, causing _____________. advanced sleep phase syndrome
_____________ is common in older adults and often is the reason behind the complaint of waking early in the morning and being unable to get back to sleep. advanced sleep phase syndrome
People with _____________ get sleepy early in the evening say around 8 or 9 pm and wake up around 4 or 5 am. advanced sleep phase syndrome
When people with _____________ stay up until their customary 10 or 11 pm, their bodies still awaken at 4 or 5 am. advanced sleep phase syndrome
A number of factors affect the quantity and quality of sleep; often more than one factor combined to cause a sleep problem. physical, psychological, & environmental
Any _____________ that causes pain, difficulty breathing, nausea, or mood problems such as anxiety or depression can result in sleep problems illness or condition
Individuals with a _____________ have trouble falling or staying asleep. physical illness
_____________ also force patients to sleep in positions to which they are unaccustomed. illnesses
A considerable number of _____________ cause either sleepiness, insomnia, or fatigue as a side effect. drugs
_____________ prescribed for sleep often cause more problems than benefits. medications
_____________ is a natural protein found in foods such as milk, cheese, and meats & sometimes helps a person sleep. L-Tryptophan
_____________ is a precursor, or forerunner, to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has a role in the sleep-wake cycle. L-Tryptophan
A persons' daily routine influences sleep patterns. lifestyle
An individual who alternately works _____________ often has difficulty adjusting to the altered sleep schedule. day and night shifts
Other alterations in routine that disrupt sleep patterns include performing _____________, engaging in _____________, & changing _____________. heavy work or exercise; late-night social activities; evening mealtime
On average, adults sleep _____________ per nights on weeknights & _____________ hours per night on weekends. 7 to 7.5 hours; 8 or more
Many Americans suffer from _____________ and experience _____________ during the day. sleep deprivation; EDS (excessive daytime sleepiness)
_____________ often results in impairment of waking function, poor work or school performance, accidents while driving or using equipment, and behavioral or emotional problems. EDS
_____________ are usually most intense upon awakening from sleep or right before going to sleep and about 12 hours after the mid-sleep period. Feelings of sleepiness
Persons who temporarily experience sleep deprivation as a result of an active social evening or lengthened work schedule usually feel sleepy the _____________. next day
_____________ is much more serious than temporary sleep deprivation and causes serious alterations in the ability to perform daily activities. chronic lack of sleep
_____________ is most difficult to overcome during sedentary tasks (e.g., driving). EDS
The _____________ in which a person sleep has significant influence on the ability to fall and remain asleep. physical environment
Good _____________, a comfortable _____________, and a _____________ lit room are essential for restful sleep. ventilation; temperature; darkened or softly
The _____________, _____________, and _____________ of a bed also affect sleep quality. size; firmness; position
_____________ are often harder than those at home. hospital beds
If a person usually sleeps with another individual, sleeping alone during times of illness causes _____________. wakefulness
Sleeping with a _____________ bed partner also disrupts sleep. restless or snoring
_____________ affects sleep activity by decreasing REM activity. noise
_____________ easily disturbs older adults' sleep b/c most of their sleep is in lighter sleep stages. noise
In _____________, noise created by caregivers, equipment, and other patients causes a problem for patients. health care facilities
Some persons require _____________ to fall asleep, whereas others prefer _____________ such as soft music or television. silence; background noise
Noise in _____________ is usually new or strange to the patient. health care facilities
The _____________ is one of the loudest, where close proximity of patients, noise from confused and ill patients, and ringing of alarm systems and telephones make the environment very disruptive. intensive care setting
A person who is moderately fatigued usually achieves restful sleep, especially if the fatigue results from _____________. enjoyable work or exercise
Completing _____________ within 2 hours or more before bedtime allows the body to cool down and maintains a state of fatigue that promotes relaxation. vigorous exercise
_____________ right before bedtime interferes with sleep onset duet to increased body temperature. vigorous exercise
_____________ resulting from exhausting or stressful work makes falling asleep difficult. Excess fatigue
Eating a large, heavy, and/or spicy meal within _____________ of bedtime sometimes results in indigestion that interferes with sleep. 3 to 4 hours
_____________ consumed in the evening has insomnia-producing and diuretic effects. Alcohol
Coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate contain _____________ that cause sleeplessness as a result of CNS stimulation. caffeine and xanthines
Weigh gain contributes to _____________ due to increased size of the soft tissue structures in the upper airway. obstructive sleep apnea
Weigh loss causes _____________ and decreased amounts of sleep. insomnia
Certain sleep disorders are the result of the _____________ popular in a weight-conscious society. semi-starvation diets
_____________ are conditions that, if untreated, cause disturbed nighttime sleep that results in one of three problems: insomnia, abnormal movements or sensation during sleep or when awakening at night; or excessive daytime sleepiness. sleep disorders
_____________ is a symptom experienced by patients who have chronic difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings from sleep, and/or a short sleep or non-restorative sleep. insomnia
The person with _____________ complains of EDS, as well as insufficient quantity and quality of sleep. insomnia
_____________ sometimes signals an underlying physical or psychological disorder. insomnia
Often people experience _____________ insomnia as a result of situational stresses such as work or family problems. transient or temporary
A temporary case of _____________ caused by a stressful event has the ability to lead to chronic difficulty in obtaining sufficient sleep. insomnia
_____________ is often associated with poor sleep habits. insomnia
During the day a person with _____________ feels sleepy, fatigued, depressed, and anxious. chronic insomnia
_____________, such as improved sleep hygiene measures, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques, at the symptoms. direct treatments
_____________ is a disorder in which the individual is unable to breathe and sleep at the same time. sleep apnea
During _____________ there is a lack of airflow through eh nose and mouth for periods from 10 seconds to 1 to 2 minutes in length. sleep apnea
There are three types of _____________: obstructive, central, & mixed apnea, which has both an obstructive and a central component. sleep apnea
_____________ is a cessation or stopping of airflow despite the effort to breathe. obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
_____________ occurs when muscles or soft structures of the oral cavity or throat relax during sleep; the upper airway becomes partially or completely blocked and nasal airflow diminishes or stops. obstructive sleep apnea
_____________ such as a deviated septum, nasal polyps, narrow lower jaw, or enlarged tonsils sometimes predispose a patient to obstructive apnea. structural abnormalities
Cessation of diaphragmatic and intercostal respiratory effort causes _____________. central sleep apnea
_____________ is a result of dysfunction of the brain's respiratory control center. central sleep apnea
_____________ is found in patients with congestive heart failure, brain stem injury, muscular dystrophy, and encephalitis, as well as in people who breathe normally during the day. central sleep apnea
_____________ is the least common sleep apnea. central sleep apnea
EDS is the most common complaint of people with _____________. obstructive sleep apnea
Patients with _____________ are at risk for cardiac dysrhythmias, right heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, angina attacks, stroke, & hypertension. obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
Treatment for _____________ includes therapy for underlying cardiac, respiratory, or emotional problems. sleep apnea
The treatment of choice is use of a _____________ device at night. nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
The _____________ pushes positive air pressure into the airway in an attempt to reduce the apnea periods the patient experiences during sleep by serving a s splint for the airway. CPAP machine
_____________ is a CNS dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate sleep and wake states. narcolepsy
_____________ is the most common complaint associated with narcolepsy. EDS
There are two _____________ states: with or without cataplexy. narcolepsy
_____________ is a sudden muschle weakness during intense emotions such as anger or laughter that occurs at any time during the day. cataplexy
If the _____________ is severe, the patient loses voluntary muscle control and falls to the floor. cataplectic attack
A person with _____________ often falls asleep uncontrollably at inappropriate times. narcolepsy
_____________ can be misunderstood for laziness, lack of interest in activities, or drunkenness. narcolepsy
_____________ is a problem many patients have as a result of a sleep disorder. sleep deprivation
Causes of _____________ include illness, emotional stress, medications, environmental disturbances, and variability in the timing of sleep as a result of shift work. sleep deprivation
_____________ occurs from insufficient sleep or disrupted sleep. sleep deprivation
Hospitalization, especially in _____________, makes patients vulnerable to the circadian sleep disorders. intensive care units
_____________ involves decreases in the quantity and quality of sleep, as well as inconsistency in the timing of sleep. sleep deprivation
When it comes to _____________, some patients experience a variety of physiological and psychological symptoms such as blurred vision, decreased reflexes, slow response time, cardiac arrhythmias, confusion, and irritability. sleep deprivation
The most effective treatment for _____________ is elimination or correction of factors that disrupt the sleep pattern. sleep deprivation
The _____________ are sleep disorders that produce abnormal sleep movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreaming as a result of autonomic nervous system changes and skeletal muscle activity during sleep. parasomnias
Created by: chaptravelman