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Bio EOC #2 Genetics

TermDefinition
Nucleotide basic unit or building block of DNA & RNA; composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleic acid
Adenine nucleic acid found in both DNA & RNA; pairs with Thymine in DNA; pairs with Uracil in RNA
Guanine nucleic acid found in both DNA & RNA; pairs with Cytosine
Cytosine nucleic acid found in both DNA & RNA; pairs with Guanine
Thymine nucleic acid only found in DNA; pairs with Adenine
Uracil nucleic acid only found in RNA; pairs with Adenine
DNA Backbone form the sides of the DNA/RNA molecule; made of sugar and phosphate
Ribosome found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of protein synthesis
Codon three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid
Translation process that decodes mRNA to make proteins
Amino Acid join together to make proteins
Anticodon three adjacent nucleotides in transfer RNA that binds to a corresponding codon in messenger RNA and designates a specific amino acid during protein synthesis.
Transcription process by which messenger RNA is synthesized from a DNA template
Gene part of DNA sequence that codes for a specific trait
tRNA type of nucleic acid that transports a specific amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
Chromosome single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity
mRNA type of nucleic acid that carries genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; serves as a template for protein synthesis; synthesized from a DNA template during the process of transcription
rRNA type of nucleic acid that is the permanent structure of a ribosome
Trait characteristic defined by the expression of a protein
Point Mutation A mutation that changes only one small area or one nucleotide in a gene
Frameshift Mutation A mutation that occurs when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted causes a misreading of amino acids from that point
Insertion A mutation in which extra base pair(s) is added to sequence
Substitution Mutation A mutation that exchanges one base for another
Silent Mutation This mutation does not change anything
Deletion A mutation where section of DNA is lost
Nonsense Mutation This mutation changes a codon that specifies an amino acid to one of the STOP codons
Missense Mutation This mutation alters the codon so as to produce an altered amino acid in the protein product
Translocation This mutation base pairs or sections of chromosome are flipped
Inversion This mutation results in a transfer of a piece of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome
Duplication Section of the gene is doubled
Nondisjunction The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during nuclear division
Alleles One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
Heredity The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
Homozygous Having the same alleles at a particular gene locus on homologous chromosomes; alleles in a pair are the same
Heterozygous Having two different alleles at corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes
Recessive An allele that does not produce a trait if it is masked by a dominant allele.
Dominant An allele that produces a trait when present; can mask a recessive allele.
Haploid Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Genotype The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms
Phenotype The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences
Law of Independent Assortment Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.
Gamete Sex cell, ovum (egg) and sperm
Law of Segregation Members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and distributed so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.
Monohybrid Cross between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest.
Dihybrid Cross between two different lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits.
Loci The position of a gene on a chromosome.
Codominance Neither allele is dominant or recessive and both get expressed
Sex linked Trait carried on the sex chromosome (X or Y))
Incomplete dominance Form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele.
Created by: tneal1