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Dr Jones CAB

QuestionAnswer
What is the Central Dogma Dna to RNA by transcription and RNA to protein by Translation
How do RNA viruses differ from the central dogma They Use reverse transcriptase to go from RNA to DNA back to RNA again
What are the components of DNA structure Phosphate group, pentose sugar and a Nitrogenous Base
Which bases are Purines ? Adenine amd Guanine
Which bases are Pyrimadines Thymine (Uracil) and Cytosil
Which bond links The backbone of DNA ? Phosphodiester Bond
In which direction are base sequences expressed 5' to 3'
Which structures are Directional Molecules Ones at the end of the chain and have a free PO4 or OH Group
What is Chargaffs rule? A+G = C+T
Which bonds link nitrogenous bases ? Hydrogen bonds
How do DNA strands run in relation to each other? Antiparralel
How many Bases pairs are present roughly in the human genome 140m bp
What is the Width and Helical turn of The DNA structure 2nm and 3.4nm
What occurs due to mutations in somatic cells? Cancers
What occurs due to mutation in gametes ? Inherited disorders
How is DNA Replication in prokaryotes described ? Semi-Discontinous
Which structures unwind DNA and Cause it from supercoiling ? Helicase and Gyrase
Which Structure Creates the RNA Primer? Primase
In which direction does replication occur on the Leading strand ? 5' to 3' towards the replication for (Continuous) `
In which direction does DNA replication occur on the lagging strand. 3' to 5' away from the replication fork, in sections called okazaki fragments (discontinuous )
What is the function of DNA Poly-I Removes RNA primer and fills the gap with DNA
Which structure binds Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand ? DNA Ligase
How is the Origin identified in Eukaryotic replication ? By a Viral protein tag , which unwinds and unzips the DNA
What is the function of RP-A the ssbp's bind and recruit ; DNA Polymerase α and Primase.
How does replication differ in long chains of DNA Processivity Complex is recruited
What is the Function of RP-C ? Binds at the 3' end and recruits PCNA a "Sliding clamp" similar to DNA-Poly-III
What is the function of DNA Polymerase δ and ε ? Binds and replicates DNA
What are the Three types of RNA? rRNA, mRNA and tRNA
What is the function of rRNA Component of Ribosomes.
What is the Funtion of mRNA ? Carries info from DNA to the ribosome to direct protein synthesis, used to determine amino acid sequence
What is the function of tRNA Transfers mRNA to the ribosome, ensures correct positioning in elongating polypeptide.
How many sites are present on tRNA? 2 ; Site for attatchment of amino acids and the site for interaction with mRNA during translation
How many tRNA's are there for each amino acid 1 or more
What is the name and example of a tRNA for only one Amino acid? Cognate tRNA, e.g. tRNAser
What is the name of a tRNA for several amino acids ? Isoacceptors
How many tRNAs are present in a cell ? ~50
Which sequence terminates a tRNA strand ? CCA at the 3' end
How many Types of RNA polymerase are present in bacteria ? 1 Type
How many Types of RNA Polymerase are present in Eukaryotes ? 3, DNA Polymerase I, II, III
What is the function of RNA Polymerase I Synthesises rRNA in the nucleus
What is the function of RNA polymerase II Synthesises mRNA
What is the Function of RNA Polymerase III Synthesises tRNA
Where does RNA polymerase bind ? to the Promoter Site on the Template strand
What does RNA polymerase use instead of a primer ? ATP/GTP
In which direction does RNA Polymerase synthesise? 5' to 3'
What are the Bacterial Promoter regions ? TTGACA and TATAAT
What are the Eukaryotic promoter regions ? TATAA (Tata box)
What are the Three stages to Transcription ? Initiation, Elongation, Termination
What occurs during Initiation ? RNA polymerase and protein factors bind to form Transcription complex
What occurs during Elongation ? Transcription Bubble forms, RNA Polymerase unwinds and unzips DNA, Base pairing causes elongation, DNA Rewinds and exits transcription bubble
What occurs during Termination ? Genes have stop sequence which halt transcription
Which PTsM occur? Addition of Poly-A Tail and 5' Cap and the Splicing of Introns
How is the Mature RNA transcript formed ? Introns are Removed and the Exons are Spliced together from the Primary RNA Transcript
Created by: davidm90143