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Cell Bio Exam 3

Cellular Biology USD Fall 2018 Dr. Karen Koster

QuestionAnswer
Where are V-class proton pumps found in plants, yeast, and fungi? vacuolar membranes
Where are V-class proton pumps found in animal cells? Endosomal and lysosmal membranes
Where are V-class proton pumps found in kidney tubule cells? Plasma Membrane
What do Proton-ATPase and V-type pumps do? They pump H+ out of cytosol and into organelles and vesicles
What does the movement of H+ protons into organelles and vesicles do? regulates cytosolic pH, can acidify vesicles, and can affect membrane potential
What are F-type ATPase similar to? structure of V-type ATPase
What do F-type Atpase move? H+
What does the F in F-type ATPase stand for? Factor
How do F-type ATPase move protons? they move protons by facilitated diffusion or actively using ATP
How does F-type ATPase use fac. diff? energy released by diffusion is used to make ATP
Where are f-type ATPase found? bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
What does ABC-Type ATPase stand for? ATP-binding cassette
What are ABC-type ATPase? large superfamily of related transporters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What are ABC-type ATPase made of? usually 4 separate polypeptides, sometimes 1 large proteins
What ar the 4 domains of ABC-type ATPase? 2 hydrophobic and 2 peripheral
What are the 2 hydorphobic domains of ABC-type ATPase made of? each made of 6 transmembrane helices
What are the 2 peripheral domains of ABC-type ATPase for? they biind and hydrolyze ATP
Where are ABC-type ATPase found? plasma membrane and organelle membranes
What do ABC-type ATPase transport? numerous small solutes such as lipids, sugars, peptides, amino acids
How does ABC-type ATPase use energy? they bind ATP in conserved domain and then hydrolyze it to transport energy
How does indirect active transport work? uses solutes (usually ions
What is chemiosmosis? free energy released as molecules diffuse down their gradient can be used to do work
What do animal cells usually use to drive transport across plasma membranes? Na+ gradients
What do other cells usually use to drive transport across membranes? proton gradients
What is cotransport? transport of two solutes symport or antiport
What is the endomembrane system? a system of membrane compartents linked together by ontogeny and function
In simple terms, what is the endomembrane system? membranes made in the ER, become golgi, plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, and lysosomes
What is not part of the endomembrane system? proteosomes
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum? smooth and rough
What are the 4 functions of the smooth ER? steroid biosynthesis, assembly of most glycerolipids, calcium storage, and drug detoxification
What are the spaces of the ER called? lumen
What are the membrane folds f the ER called? cisternae
Which type of ER lacks ribosomes? smooth ER
What is the shape of cisternae of the smooth ER? tubular
What does the smooth ER store? calcium and triacyclglycerols
What is the function of the rough ER? biosynthesis and processing of proteins for EMS and secretion
How does the rough ER structure differ from the smooth ER? rough ER has ribosomes and smooth doesn't, rough ER has flattened cisternae and smooth has tubular, smooth stores calcium and triacylglyceros and rough accumulates secretory proteins
Where are proteins for EMS translated? on the rough ER
What guides polypeptide into membrane? signal sequences on the N-terminus
What MAY occurin the ER some glycosylation
Where does glycosylation of membrane roteins and lipids begin? ER
What modification are done in the ER? (3) Biosynthesis of core oligosaccharides, processing of core ologosaccharides, and removal of misfolded proteins
Where does biosynthesis of core ologsaccharides occur? ER, protein
Where does atatchment of N-acetylgalactosamine occur? Golgi, protein
Where does processing of core ologosaccharides occur? ER, protein
Where does phosphorylation of lysosomal proteins occur? Golgi, protein
Where does removal of misfolded proteins occur? ER, protein
Where does removal of mannose occur? Golgi, protein
Where does attachment of N-acetylglucosamine? Golgi, protein
Where does addtion of galactose occur? Golgi, protein
Where does addition of sialic acid occur? Golgi, protein
Where does attachment of sulfate to tyrosine occur? Golgi, protein
What varies in different golgi cisternae? different enzymes in different cisternae, and idfferent things happen to different sugars as they move down the apparatus
What type of golgi faces ER? cis
What type of golgi faces the plasma membrane? trans
What is the first function of the golgi apparatus? chemical modification of proteins and lipids
What are the three ways the golgi apparatus modifies proteins and lipids? glycosylation, phosphorylation, and methylation
What is the shape of cisternae in the golgi apparatus? flattened disks
what is the second function of the golgi apparatus? sorting proteins and targeting to specific destinations
What is the target for proteins to the ER? KDEL amino acid sequences
What is the target for proteins to the lysosome? mannose-6-phosphate
What is the target for proteins for secretion? extracellular sequences of aa
What may trap integral membrane proteins as they move through the EMS? increasing membrane thickness
How does the golgi apparatus recognize these amino acid/sugar sequences? the golgi recognizes the shape, structure, and properties of the amino acid sequences
Where do sugar polymers first assemble? cytosol
What surface of the EMS are sugars added to proteins and further modified? lumen surface
What acts as the carrier of oligosaccharides for protein glycosylation? dolichol phosphate
Where does core oligosaccharide synthesis begin? cytoplasm
What is the beginning step of oligosaccharide sythesis? N-acetyl-glucosamine and mannose are added to dolichol phosphate
Where are N-acetyl-glucosamine added to oligosaccharides? cytosol of ER
What does flippase catalyze? the translocation of oligosaccharides from the cytosol of the ER to the lumen
What is flippase? a phospholipid translocator
Where does completion of hte core oligosaccharide occur? in the lumen of the ER
Wher are mannose and gluocse units added to oligosaccharides? in the lumen of the ER
How does the targeting protein to lysosomes using mannose-6-phosphate work? the lysosomal enzyme is snthesized and the carb is added in the ER, mannose is phosphorylated and sequential activity of two enzymes in teh Golgi, Mannose-6-phosphate binds to receptor and tagged enzyme packaged in transport vesicle, Low pH in endosome ca
What is an endosome? organelles formed by fusion of vesicles from golgi and endocytotic vesicles from plasma membrane
How does endosomes mature? addition of more vesicles/enzymes from the golgi
What is a late endosome? more acidic than early endosomes
What does a late endosome develop into? lysosome
When does a late endosome develop into a lysosome? when they get more enzymes from the golgi
Lysosomes have low pH, how do they become acidic? with V-type ATPase pumps because vesicle transport
What is a lysosome? organelle that digests biological macromolecules
What is the purpose of vacuoles? similar function to lysosomes, but in plants
What is the plasma membrane made of and where does it come from? most lipids and protein constituents are derived from the ER via the Golgi
What is the nuclear envelope? outer membrane that is continuous with the ER
How is nuclear envelope formed? by fusion of the ER vesicles after mitosis
Where does the nuclear envelope get its lipids and proteins? from the ER/Golgi
What is trafficking in the EMS? directed movement of vesicles among compartments
What is the movement of transition vesicles? ER to golgi
What is the movement of shuttle vesicles? between golgi stacks
What are the two movements of shuttle vesicles? anterograde and retrograde
What is anterograde shuttle vesicle movement? cis to medial to trans golgi
What is retrograde shuttle vesicle movement? trans to cis golgi to ER
What is the movement of secretory vesicles? trans golgi to plasma membrane
What is the movement of endosomal vesicles? trans golgi to endosomes to lysosomes
What is hte movement of endocytotic vesicles? plasma membrane to endosome to lysosome
What are coated vesicles? membranes surrounded by a protein coat
What does the protein coat do for coated vesicles? gives them shape and helps target vesicle to the correct site
What is the first type of protein coat for coated vesicles? clathrin
What is clathrin? multimeric protein forms interlocking polygonal cages
Where do clathrin- coated vesicles form? at the trans-golgi and plasma membrane
Where do clathrin-coated vesicles go? to the endosomes
what is a triskelion subunit? 6 polypeptic multimeric clathrin coated protein
what link clatherin coats to membranes? adaptor proteins
What pinches the clathrin cage off membranes? dynamin protein (GTPase)
wat are clathrin protein coats called when they come off the plasma membrane via endocytosis? coated pits
what are the two options for clathrin coats? dissociate or stay
When do clathrin coats dissociate? after budding of vesicle
When do clathrin coats have to stay until? fusion with target
What is the SNARE hypothesis? rteins protruding from vesicle surface and target membrane link and pull the two membranes together
What is recognition in the SNARE hypothesis mediated by? multimeric tethering complexes of proteins on target membranes
Explain the process of vesicle binding and fusion recognition is mediated by multimeric tethering complexes of proteins on target membranes. These the nbind the incoming vesicle and pull it to the membrane surface and the SNAREs link
What is the structure before vesicle fusion? a vesicle with Rab GTPase and a v-SNARE protiein hanging off of it and the target membrane has a coiled tethering complex, a multisubunit tethering complex, and a t-SNARE
What is the first step in vesicle fusion? vesicle is recognized and bound by the memrante anchored thethering proteins (coiled and multisubunit)
What is the second step in vesicle fusion? Rab GTPase bound to the vesicle stimulates association of v-SNARE with the t-SNARE
What is the third step in vesicle fusion? Membrane fusion is promoted by the interaction of v-SNARE and t-SNARE
What is the last step in vesicle fusion? NSF and SNAPs binding promotes dissociation of hte SNARE complex
What does v-SNARE stand for? vesicle SNAP receptor
What does t-SNARE stand for? target SNAP receptor
What does SNAP stand for? soluble NSF attachment protein
What is NSF? N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor
What does RAB GTPase do? it helps the SNARES connect
What is the first step in receptor-mediated endocytosis? ligands bind to receptors in the plasma membrane and triggers the formation of clathrin-coated pits
What happens after the clathirn-coated pits are formed? vesicles fuse to early endosomes and clathrin is released
What happens after clathrin is released? contents are sorted
Explain clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis yolk particles accumulate in a coated pit with a clathrin coat on inner surface, as more clathrin is added a deeper pit forms and traps the additional particles of yolk, addition of curvature leads to formation of vesicle
What is secretion/exocytosis? fusion of vesicle with plasma membrane and release of contents out of cell
What are the 2 types of secretion/exocytosis? constitutive and regulated
What is constitutive secretion/exocytosis? continuous
What are examples of things that undergo constitutive secretion/exocytosis? mucus, glycoproteins for ECM
What is regulated secretion/exocytosis? secretion/exocytosis that occurs in response to a signal
How is the type of secretion/exocytosis decided? depends on targeting sequences of amino acids
Explain exocytosis/secretion secretory vesicle approaches pm, the membranes fuse, the plasma membrane ruptures and the contents of the vesicle are discharged outside of the cell
What happens to the secretory vesicles after exocytosis/secretion? the vesicle embrane becomes integrated into the plasma membrane
vesicle movement occurs along _________. Cytoskeleton
What does vesicle moment use? motor proteins
What do vesicles move along? microtubules and actin microfilaments
What kinds of things undergo regulated secretion/exocytosis? neurotransmitters and insulin
What is the nuclear envelope? two concentric, fused membranes that separate transcription from translation
What are the components of the nuclear envelope? outer membrane, inner membrane, pore complex
What is the outer membrane? continuous with ER and has ribosomes
What is the inner membrane? lacks ribosomes
What is the nuclear lamina? network of lamin proteins linked to the membrane proteins
Where is the nuclear lamina found? in the inner membrane
What is a lamin? an intermediate filament (cytoskeleton)
WWhat is the function of the lamin? structural support for the envelope
How do lamin help link to cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm? via pores
What is the measurement related to nuclear lamina? 10-40 nm thick
What gives structural support to the envelope and the nucleus? nuclear lamina nad the matrix
What is the nuclear matrix? fibrous structure that helps organize chromatin
what does the lamina connect to? nuclear matrix
What is the perinuclear space? the region between the inner and outer envelopes
What are nuclear pores? transporters in the nuclear nevelope
Where is the nuclear pore located? where the inner and outer envelopes fuse in the nuclear envelope
What does the nuclear pore enable? transport between the nucleopasm and cytoplasm
What is the nuclear pore complex? large complex
What is the size of the nuclear pore complex? 120 nm in diameter
What is the size of a nuclear pore channel? 80 nm
How many different proteins make up the nuclear pore complex? 50 different proteins
What are the different proteins called in the nuclear pore? nucleoporins
What is the symetry of the nuclear pore complex? octagonal
What is an annulus? proteins lining rim of pore, bound to membrane of envelope
What regulates transport in the nuclear pore? spokes and fibers of proteins extend into the channel and into the cytoplasm, nucleus
What does abundance of pore complexes vary with? activity of the cell in transcriptions
What is the general rule for abundance of pore complexes? there are more nuclear pore complexes in closer proximity as the activity of the cell increases
What are the two types of transport through the nuclear pore complex? unregulated and regulated
What size of molecules can diffuse freely through the NPC? 9-10 nm
Why can smaller molecules diffuse faster in the NPC? there is little to no electrical resistance, so ions can go through freely
What are large molecules regulated by in transport through the NPC? regulated transport
how or molecules recognized by regulated transport via the NPC? the nuclear localization signal which is 8-30 amino acids with special sequence
What does the NLS bind to? importin, a carrier protein
How does importin bind? it binds to fibers extending from the pore and moves along into the pore
What is found inside the nucleus? Ran
What is Ran? GTP-binding protein with bound GTP
How does protein cargo get released in regulated transport via NPC? Ran (GTP binding protein) binds to importin and cargo is released
How does importin get out of the NPC? ran-GTP-importin moves out
How is importin released? GTP is hydrolyzed
What is the last step of import through regulated transport via the NPC? ran-GDP re-enters nucleus and trades GDP for GTP
What is export through regulated transport via NPC cargo? RNA boudn to adaptor protein with NES
What is NES? nuclear export signal
How does cargo bind to export out of the NPC? Ran-GTP binds to exportin which enables cargo to bind
How does the Ran_GTP-exportin/cargo move through pore? the complex is recognized by the NPC
What happens when the complex moves out to cytoplasm during export via regulated transport from NPC? GTP is hydrolyzed and the complex dissociates
HOw does more unsaturated fats affect Tm? more unsaturated means more fluid
How does more saturated fats affect Tm? more saturated means less fluid
How does number of carbon atoms affect Tm? more carbon atoms means less fluid
How does number of carbon double bonds affect Tm? more double bonds means more fluid
Why do more saturated fatty acids mean less fluid? the saturated fatty acids are able to pack together more tightly
In biological membranes, what regulates fluidity and phase transitions? lipid compositions
How do sterols affect fluidity? sterols increase fluid at lower temps because they interupt the lipids ability to pack together tightly
Created by: kenzigustafson