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Micro Chapters 7,8,9

TermDefinition
Bacterial Traits -Shape -Cell Wall -Gram Stain -Structures
Inducible Enzymes Genes that can be turned on
Constitutive Enzymes Genes that always expressed constitutive genes/proteins/enzymes
Induction Turn it on, response to need for an end product
Repression -Usually response to overabundance of an end product, can be turned off -Decreases or stops the synthesis of that product-stops translation
Operon Segment of DNA that encodes for a group of enzymes needed for a particular catabolic pathway
Lac Operon Set of genes that control lactose catabolism in E. coli enzymes
Z Beta galactose
Y -Permease -Makes cell permeable for lactose
A Not sure of function
Genes from upstream to downstream P, O, Z, Y, A
How are Lactose and Glucose produced When H2O and Beta galactose (Z) are added to Lactose, Lactose + Glucose is produced
Promoter Where RNA binds and permease primes and promotes transcriptions
Operator Stop/Go signal
Regulation Gene (I) Encodes for a repressor protein
Constitutive Gene Means it is always on
Z, Y, and A are _________ Inducible
2 Steps of Repression 1. Repressor protein sits on Operator region of Lac Operon-binds to O region 2. RNA polymerase blocks from transcribing Lac Operon-polymerase cannot transcribe Z, Y, A (defaults to being turned off if lactose is not present)
2 Steps of Induction 1. Lactose binds to repressor protein to inactivate it 2. RNA polymerase binds to promoter because nothing is blocking it so Z, Y, and A are now transcribed-now we have lactose
Higher Variability= Higher population
How do Prokaryotes prevent Uniformity? -Mutations -Genetic Recombination
How do Eukaryotes prevent Uniformity? Mate outside of family
Mutation Changes in the base sequence of DNA
2 Types of Mutations -Point -Frameshift
Point Mutations Single Base Replaced
Nonsense Mutations Lead to premature stop (1st codon changed) codons that causes the protein to be shorter, so it will be a different protein
Missense Mutations 2nd Letter of a codon changed and changes 1 amino acid, sometimes effects are really bad and sometimes okay
Frameshift -Caused by insertion or deletion of a base -Shifts the entire reading frame of downstream bases -Has worse effects than point mutations
Mutagens Anything causes a mutation
Frequency of mutation Spontaneous Rate= 1 in a million
DNA ______ checks for mistakes Polymerase
X-rays and Gamma Rays -Destabilizes normal atoms and causes free radical damage and a chain reaction of instability -Causes single and double stranded breaks in the cellular DNA
UV Light -Thymine Dimers (where two are side by side) -DNA can't properly be transcribed or replicated -Leads to a deletion and frameshift mutation
Recombination Horizontal gene transfer
Transformation -Happens in soil -Strep pnuemo: encapsulated and unencapsulated strains
Conjugation -Must have cell to cell contact -Occurs via plasmid -Must be able to produce a pilus
Plasmids -Toxin production -Attachment -R determinant
Transduction From donor to recipient via a bacteriophage (injects virus into host)
3 Types of Recombination 1. Transformation 2.Conjugation 3. Transduction
Restriction Enzymes -Naturally produced by bacteria -Looks for specific base sequences -Cuts DNA and leaves behind sticky ends -Makes recombinant DNA -Makes plasmids -Protects from bacteriophages
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Taking pieces of DNA and copying/amplifying them
Electrophoresis Gel transfer for flu
Created by: aleahgoodson