Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Micro Chapters 7,8,9

Bacterial Traits -Shape -Cell Wall -Gram Stain -Structures
Inducible Enzymes Genes that can be turned on
Constitutive Enzymes Genes that always expressed constitutive genes/proteins/enzymes
Induction Turn it on, response to need for an end product
Repression -Usually response to overabundance of an end product, can be turned off -Decreases or stops the synthesis of that product-stops translation
Operon Segment of DNA that encodes for a group of enzymes needed for a particular catabolic pathway
Lac Operon Set of genes that control lactose catabolism in E. coli enzymes
Z Beta galactose
Y -Permease -Makes cell permeable for lactose
A Not sure of function
Genes from upstream to downstream P, O, Z, Y, A
How are Lactose and Glucose produced When H2O and Beta galactose (Z) are added to Lactose, Lactose + Glucose is produced
Promoter Where RNA binds and permease primes and promotes transcriptions
Operator Stop/Go signal
Regulation Gene (I) Encodes for a repressor protein
Constitutive Gene Means it is always on
Z, Y, and A are _________ Inducible
2 Steps of Repression 1. Repressor protein sits on Operator region of Lac Operon-binds to O region 2. RNA polymerase blocks from transcribing Lac Operon-polymerase cannot transcribe Z, Y, A (defaults to being turned off if lactose is not present)
2 Steps of Induction 1. Lactose binds to repressor protein to inactivate it 2. RNA polymerase binds to promoter because nothing is blocking it so Z, Y, and A are now transcribed-now we have lactose
Higher Variability= Higher population
How do Prokaryotes prevent Uniformity? -Mutations -Genetic Recombination
How do Eukaryotes prevent Uniformity? Mate outside of family
Mutation Changes in the base sequence of DNA
2 Types of Mutations -Point -Frameshift
Point Mutations Single Base Replaced
Nonsense Mutations Lead to premature stop (1st codon changed) codons that causes the protein to be shorter, so it will be a different protein
Missense Mutations 2nd Letter of a codon changed and changes 1 amino acid, sometimes effects are really bad and sometimes okay
Frameshift -Caused by insertion or deletion of a base -Shifts the entire reading frame of downstream bases -Has worse effects than point mutations
Mutagens Anything causes a mutation
Frequency of mutation Spontaneous Rate= 1 in a million
DNA ______ checks for mistakes Polymerase
X-rays and Gamma Rays -Destabilizes normal atoms and causes free radical damage and a chain reaction of instability -Causes single and double stranded breaks in the cellular DNA
UV Light -Thymine Dimers (where two are side by side) -DNA can't properly be transcribed or replicated -Leads to a deletion and frameshift mutation
Recombination Horizontal gene transfer
Transformation -Happens in soil -Strep pnuemo: encapsulated and unencapsulated strains
Conjugation -Must have cell to cell contact -Occurs via plasmid -Must be able to produce a pilus
Plasmids -Toxin production -Attachment -R determinant
Transduction From donor to recipient via a bacteriophage (injects virus into host)
3 Types of Recombination 1. Transformation 2.Conjugation 3. Transduction
Restriction Enzymes -Naturally produced by bacteria -Looks for specific base sequences -Cuts DNA and leaves behind sticky ends -Makes recombinant DNA -Makes plasmids -Protects from bacteriophages
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Taking pieces of DNA and copying/amplifying them
Electrophoresis Gel transfer for flu
Created by: aleahgoodson
Popular Biology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards