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Cell Division

What are chromosomes made up of? Individual chromosomes are made up of a long double-stranded DNA molecule attached to DNA-binding proteins.
What is the difference between eukaryote and prokaryote chromosomes? In eukaryotes, the chromosomal DNA is tightly wound up around additional proteins. Prokaryotes generally have one large circular double-stranded DNA molecule.
What are chromosomes? Chromosomes are the basic unit for DNA replication and cell division.
What is cell division? Cell division describes the process by which one cell duplicates into two daughter cells.
What is cell division for prokaryotes? In prokaryotes, this is referred to as binary fission or prokaryotic fission.
What is cell division like for eukaryotes? Cell division in all eukaryotes involves a process called mitosis. In mitosis, the replicated DNA is divided between the two daughter cells.
What happens during binary fission? During binary fission, DNA replicates and each copy attaches to either end of the cell membrane. The DNA copies are then pulled apart during cell division into separate daughter cells. Plasmids also replicate.
Describe the 4 phases of the cell cycle. Gap 1: Cells grow and prepare for DNA replications. Synthesis: DNA replication occurs. Gap 2: Cells continue to grow and prepare for the separation of chromosomes. Mitosis: Cell division occurs.
Describe Mitosis (M phase). The spindle forms in the cell and pulls sister chromatids apart into 2 daughter cells.
What are the four phases of mitosis in order? Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
What are cancer cells? Cells that lose the ability to regulate the rate of cell division.
What happens to cancer cells? Cancer cells stop responding to cell death signals and continue to divide to an abnormal extent.
What do cancerous tumors do? Cancerous tumors may metastasize and invade surrounding or distant tissues and organs and deplete nutrients originally consumed by other parts of the body.
What happens in prophase? At the start of prophase, the centrioles divide and move to opposite ends of the cell. They produce spindle fibers that stretch and form the spindle. The nucleus and chromosomes condense and the nucleolus disappears. The nuclear membrane dissolves.
What happens in metaphase? At the start of metaphase, the spindle fibers pull the chromosomes so that they are lined up across the center of the cell. This ensures that, when the chromosomes are separated, each new cell will receive one copy of each chromosome.
What happens in anaphase? In anaphase, the chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart. One chromatid from each chromosome is pulled to each end or pole of the cell. At this point, each chromatid can be thought of as a new daughter chromosome.
What happens in telophase? The daughter chromosomes move to the poles of the cell. At each end of the cell, a new nuclear membrane forms around the daughter chromosomes. The chromosomes decondense. The nucleolus reappears. The spindle fibers disperse and the cell starts to divide.
What happens in cytokineses? In animal cells, the center of the cell contracts, pinching the cell into two daughter cells. In plant cells, a cell plate is synthesized between the two daughter cells. This eventually forms a new cell wall. Cell division is now complete.
Created by: JustEmma
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