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Vocabulary #3

Vocabulary words #3

TermDefinition
Cytology the branch of biology concerned with the structure and function of plant and animal cells.
Organelles any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Cells are the basic building blocks of living things.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Plasma Membrane a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm.
Cell Wall rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
Chloroplasts (in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae)
Nucleus a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Ribosomes a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Golgi Bodies a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Vacuoles a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid
Lysosomes an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
Centrioles a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Virus(es) A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts
Diffusion (Passive Transport) moves across a concentration gradient, or a gradual difference in solute concentration between two areas
Osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Active Transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
Phagocytosis the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
Created by: 1012639
 

 



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