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3weeks exam (2nd9W)

TermDefinition
G-0 The cell is at a resting period, its not actively dividing and it only does its normal cell functions.
G-1 The cell is growing and doing normal cell functions
S-phase DNA is replicated
Cancer /tumor Uncontrolled cell growth due to faulty checkpoints
Mitosis Nuclear and genetic material is divided
Prophase Chromosomes become visible
Metaphase Chromosomes align in the middle
Anaphase Chromosomes are pulled apart into opposite poles
Telophase Two new nuclei form
Cytokinesis Cytoplasm divides and separates the two cells completely.
Prokaryote Cell A simple cell with free floating DNA, ribosomes and a cell membrane. (NO nucleus)
Eukaryote Cell A complex cell with NUCLEUS, membrane bound organelles such as the mitochondria, chloroplast, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Apparatus.
Diffusion The random movement of particles from a HIGH--> LOW concentration of particles.
Facilitated Diffusion The diffusion of bigger or charged particles from HIGH-->LOW concentration with the use of a protein helper.
Osmosis The diffusion of water from a HIGH-->LOW concentration
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Meiosis Reduction division that results in four different haploid cells. They have half the amount of genetic material than regular body cells,
Mitosis Cell division of somatic(body) cells . Creates identical cells.
Cell Cycle checkpoints Points in the cell cycle that assess damage in the cell and if they are faulty it can lead to cancer.
Enzyme A protein that speeds up chemical reactions. They function best at their optimal PH or Temperature.
Crossing Over When homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genes in order to create genetic variation.
Adenine Pairs up with Thymine
Guanine Pairs up with Cytosine
DNA replication DNA gets copied by: 1-Breakage of Hydrogen bonds, 2-Nucleotides are attached to their complementary base, 3- Two new semiconservative DNA molecules are made
Nitrogen base Their arrangement determines the traits of an organism. Most important component of DNA.
DNA backbone Made up of Sugar and Phosphate
Created by: bireyher