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Chapter 3 Vocab

CELL THEORY one of the first unifying themes developed in biology
CYTOPLASM a jelly-like substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks such as proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, and ions; also contains ribosomes- molecules where proteins are assembled
ORGANELLE structures specialized to preform distinct processes within a cell; most organelles are surrounded by a embrane
PROKARYOTIC CELLS a cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles; the cell's DNA is suspended in the cytoplasm; most prokaryotes are microscopic, single celled organisms
EUKARYOTIC CELLS a cell that has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles; the nucleus, the largest organelle, encloses the genetic information; eukaryotes may be multi or single celled organisms
CYTOSKELETON a flexible network of proteins that provide structural support for the cell; it is made of small protein subunits that form long threads, or fibers, that crisscrosss the entire cell
NUCLEUS the storehouse for most of the genetic information, of DNA, in your cells
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM [ER] the interconnected network of thin, folded membranes, similar to that of cell membranes and nuclear membranes; the ER membranes form a maze of enclosed spaces
RIBOSOME tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
GOLGI APPARATUS closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins; its membranes contain ensymes that make additional changes to proteins
VESICLE a general name to describe small, membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from place-to-place
MITOCHONDRION [plural: Mitochondria] the powerhouse of the cell; supply energy to the cell; bean-shaped and have 2 membranes
VACUOLE fluid-filled sac used for storage of materials needed by a cell; materials may include water, food molecules, inorganic ions, and enzymes
LYSOSOME membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes; defend cell from invading bacteria and viruses
CENTRIOLE cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle; the 2 centrioles are positioned perpendicular to each other
CELL WALL rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to the cell; cell walls of multiple cells can adhere to each other to help support an entire organism
CHLOROPLAST organelles that carry out photosynthesis
CELL MEMBRANE forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell
PHOSPHOLIPID a molecule composed of 3 parts: a charged phosphate group, glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY it allows some, but not all, materials to cross
RECEPTOR a protein that detects a signal molecule and preforms an action in response; recognizes and binds to only certain molecules
PASSIVE TRANSPORT the movement of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
DIFFUSION the movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration; results from the natural motion of particles which causes molecules to collide and scatter
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT the difference in concentration of a substance from one region to another
OSMOSIS the movement across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
ISOTONIC a solution that has a solute concentration equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
HYPERTONIC a solution that has a solute concentration higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
HYPOTONIC a solution that has a solute concentration lower that the solute concentration inside a cell
FACILITATED DIFFUSION the diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
ACTIVE TRANSPORT drives molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
ENDOCYTOSIS the process of taking liquids or fairly large molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
PHAGOCYTOSIS a type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane engulfs large particles
EXOCYTOSIS the opposite of endocytosis, is the release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane
Created by: CasavantJ22