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Sociology Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Social Institutions Systems and structures that shape the activities of groups and individuals in society
Politics The methods and tactics of managing a nation or state, as well as administering and controlling its internal and external affairs
Government The formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society, especially through the creation and enforcement of laws
Power The ability to impose one's will on others
Authority The non coercive, legitimate exercise of power
Authoritarianism A system of government by and for a small number of elites that does not include representation of ordinary citizens
Dictatorship Type of authoritarianism where the leader typically seizes power rather being elected
Totalitarianism The most extreme and modern form of authoritarianism, in which the government seeks to control every aspect of citizens' lives
Monarchy Government by a king or queen, with succession of rulers kept within the family
Absolute Monarchies Typically have complete authority over their subjects
Constitutional Monarchies Royal figures whose powers are defined by a political charter and limited by a parliament or other governing body
Democracy Political System in which all citizens have the right to participate
Pluralism System of political power where a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and power
C. Wright Mills Coined the term "power elite," a relatively small number of people who control the economic, political, and military institutions of a society
Special Interest Groups Organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials or public opinion
Mass Media Impacts politics
Opinion Leaders High-profile people who interpret events and influence the public
Education The process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, and expectations to its members so they can function in society
Hidden Curriculum Describes the values and behaviors that students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling because of the educational system's structure and teaching methods
The Pygmalion Effect The idea that teachers' attitudes about their students unintentionally influence their academic performance
Savage Inequalities Contends that because schools are funded by local property taxes, children in poor neighborhoods are trapped in poor schools, which reinforces inequality
Early College High Schools Institutions that blend high school and college into a coherent educational program in which students earn both a high-school diploma and two years of college credit toward a bachelor's degree
Homeschooling The education of children by their parents, at home
Distance Learning Includes any educational course or program in which the teacher and students do not meet together in the classroom, a situation increasingly available over the internet
School Vouchers Payments from the government to parents whose children attend failing public schools to help parents pay for private school tuition
Charter Schools Public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control over their children's education
Religion Includes any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals
Beliefs Propositions and ideas held on the basis of faith
Rituals Practices based on those beliefs that identify a relationship between the sacred (holy, divine, or supernatural) and the profane (ordinary, mundane, or everyday)
Religiosity The regular practice of religious beliefs, measured by church attendance
Extrinsic Religiosity Refers to a person's public display of commitment to a religious faith
Intrinsic Religiosity Refers to a person's inner religious life or personal relationship to the divine
Fundamentalists Those who literally interpret texts and want to "return" to a time of greater religious purity
Unchurched Those who consider themselves spiritual but not religious, and who often adopt aspects of various religious traditions
Created by: aleahgoodson