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Lecture 9: Comp Phys

Lecture outline 10: Comparative Physiology USD Fall 2018 Dr. Kenneth Renner

What is the primary role of the nervous system? (3) take in information from the environment and internal structures, process the information and relay messages for the appropriate response
What are the initial signals of the nervous system detected by? 3 types of receptors
What are the three types of receptors? mechanoreceptors, radioreceptors, chemoreceptors
what are mechanoreceptors? detetion of touch, pressure, and low frequency vibrations (sounds)
What are Radioreceptors? detection of high frequency vibrations, heat, and light
What are some examples of radioreceptors? eyes, pit organs on rattlesnakes
What are chemoreceptors? detection of chemical agents
What are some examples of chemoreceptors? Alfactory epithelium and taste buds
How do sensory receptors typically respond to stimulus? by an increase in membrane permeability to sodium
What does in increase in membrane permeability to sodium result in in sensory receptors? local depolarization
What are the two types of potentials created by local depolarization of sensory receptors? Receptor potentials and generator potentials
What is a receptor potential? a potential generated by isolated receptors
What is a receptor potential response graded with respect to? stimulus sstrength
True or False: like AP, receptor potentials can't be summed in magnitude False, receptor potentials can be summed in magnitude
What do receptor potentials impact? sensory afferent fibers
What does afferent mean? signals sent to the CNS
How does receptor potentials typically occur? through chemical NT
What is a generator potential? signal activates voltaged gated channels on the terminal of an afferent sensory fibers
What can generator otentials generate? An AP at the terminal
What is receptor adaptation? the ability of some sensory receptors to adapt if exposure to stimulus is prolonged
True or False: degree of adaptation in receptor adaptation is variable true
What are tonic receptors? receptors that don't adapt or adapt slowly
What are examples of tonic receptors? pain receptors and chemoreceptors
Why is it important that pain receptors are tonic receptors? Because the non-adapted signal allows you to not use something when in pain (which probably needs to heal)
What are phasic receptors? receptors that adapt rapidly and function to convey information about changes in stimulus intensity
How do phasic receptors adapt? After the initial depolarizing, the receptor response to a continued constant stimulus stops
What is the vertebrate eye covered with? three layers of outer wall
What are the three layers of outer wall of the vertebrate eye? tunic, uvea, retina
What is the fibrous layer of the vertebrate eye? tunic
What is the vascular layer of the vertebrate eye? uvea
What is the inner layer of hte vertebrate eye? retina
What is the unic divided into? the sclera and the cornea
True or False: the layers of the tunic have distinct embryological origins true
What is the sclera made of? white, fibrous connective tissue
Where is the sclera found? posterior region of the eye
What is the sclera derived from? mesoderm
What are the functions of the sclera? (4) Gives the eye shape and protects inner part, withstands intraocular pressure, receives extrinsic eye muscle insertions, optic nerve enters
True or False: the cornea is transparent true
What is the function of the cornea? provides an interface between the environment and internal structures of the eye
What is the cornea deried from? The ectoderm
What is the function of eye lids? it protects the eye from dust and maintain a moist surface
What is the lacrimal gland? source of fluid for the eye
What type of organisms are eyelids found? terrestrial
What type of organisms are lacrimal glands found? terrestrial
What is the function of eye lashes? to trap dust
What types of organisms have eye lashes? mammals
What is a nictitating membrane? membrane found in reptiles that flicks laterally across the eye
What hapens whene light hits a medium perpendicular to the rays? The rays will slow down, but they will stay in parallel
What happens if light hits an angulated surface? some rays will reach the surface before others
What happens when an angulated surface has a different density than air? The light that hits will slow down and bend perpendicular to angle of medium
What does the degree of bend in light rays depend on? angulation of medium and refractive index of mediu
What is refractive index? ratio of light velocity in a vacuum vs. light velocity in a given medium
True or false: velocity of light increases in any given medium false, decreases
What does decrease in velocity of light depend on? depends on the nature of medium and wave length of light
What is the cornea used for in terrestrial vertebrates? light refraction
What is the lens used for in terrestrial vertebrates? fine focusing
How is an aquatic environment different than air? there is dissolved and suspended materials blocking light and limiting vision and light intensity decreases as depth increaese
True or false: in aquatic environments, wavelengths are equally absorbed false, selectively, UV first and blue last
Why does the cornea have a minor role in light refraction in aquatic vertebrates? because water and the cornea have similar refractive index
What is the shape of the cornea in aquatic organisms and why? the cornea is flat to decrease resistance while swimming
What is the lens used for in aquatic organisms? used to bend light
What is the shape of the lens in aquatic vertebrates? large and spherical
What is the outer layer of the cornea made of? epithelial cell that is continuous with the cells of the conjunctiva
What is the conjunctiva? epithelial cell layer that covers the sclera
What is the function of the conjuctiva? mediates immune response and mucous production
What is the Uvea? the vascular middle layer of the eye
What are the three layers of the Uvea? choroid layer, ciliary body, and iris
What is the choroid layer of the uvea? vascular, pigmented layer that lines the interior surface of the sclera
What color is the choroid? thin, dark brown
What is the function of the choroid layer in diurinal verterats? absorbs light and prevents reflection back out of the eye
What is the function of the choroid layer of the uvea in nocturnal vertebrates? improves light detection
What is the imporved light detection from teh choroid layer in nocturnal vertebrates called? tapetum lucidum
Waht are the two general functions of the choroid layer? light absorption and vascular supply to the retina
What is the ciliary body? a vascular tunic that contains the ciliary muscle
What is the ciliary muscle involvedi n? altering lens shape
What are the functions of the ciliary body? vascular supply for the retina and contains ciliary muscle to alter shape of lens
Where is the iris located? betweens the lengs and the cornea
What is the iris? color of the eye
What is located at the center of the iris? the pupil
What is the function of the pupil? allows light to enter the eye
What is the function of the iris? regulates the amount of light that enter the eye
How does the iris regulate the light entering they eye? regulation of the circular andradial smooth muscle fibers
What do the radial and circular muscle fibers do? regulate the pupillary operture of the eye
What are the radial muscle fibers controlled by? sympathetic nervous system
What are teh NT associated with radial muscle fibers? norepinephrine and epinephrine
What does contraction of radial muscle fibers do in the eye? increase the aperture
What does contraction of the radial muscle fibers do? enhance the light gathering capabilities of the eye
What are the circular muscle fibers controlled by? parasympathetic Nervous system
What is the NT associated with circular muscle fibers? Acetylcholine
What does contraciton of the circular muscle fibers do? decreases the pupillary operture and limits light entry
What is the retina? innermost layer of the eye
What are the two layers of the retina? outer and inner layer
What is the outer layer of the retina? pigmented and non-nervous
What is the inner layer of the retina? contains 3 zones of neruons
Where are photorecepts found? in the retina
What are the two types of photoreceptors? rods and cones
What is the function of the outer segment of photoreceptors? specialized for photo transduction
Where is the series of membranes located? in the outer segment of photoreceptors
What is the set up for the series of membranes in photoreceptors? either interconnecting or free floating discs (rods)
What are the two benefits of the folding of the series of membranes in photoreceptors? increaes surface area
Where are photopigments found? in the folding of the series of membranes of photoreceptors in the retina
Why does in increase in SA matter in the series of membranes in photoreceptors of the retina? it increases the amount of membrane to house photopigments
What does in increase in photopigments do? increases light trapping efficiency and increases light sensitivity
What is the protein called that is found in photopigments opsin
What is the chromophobe in photopigments called? retinene
What is retinene derived from? vitamin A
True or false: opsin is the same accross all four pigments false, it differs between the fours
What is the opsin in rods called? rhodopsin
What is rhodopsin sensitive to? light/dark
How many types of chone pigments are there? 3
What is the red range pigment? erythrolabe
What is the green range pigment? chlorolabe
What is the blue range pigment? cyanolabe
What are the 4 neuronal layers? bipolar neurons, amacrine cells, horizontal cells, and ganglina cells
What is the pathway of bipolar neurons? vertical pathway
What is the function of the bipolar neurons? transfer input from the photosensitive cells to ganglion cells
What is the pathway of amacrine cells? horizontal pathways
What is the contact of amacrine cells? other amacrine cells and bipolar cells
What is the function of amacrine cells? excite or inhibit adjacent cells
What is the pathway of horizontal cells? horizontal pathway
What is the contact for horizontal cells? other horizontal cells or bipolar cells
What do ganglion cells receive? net responses of neuronal pathways
What happens if ganglion cells are excited? they gnerate and action potential to the CNS
What do te axons of ganglion cells form? the optic nerve
What type of retinal cell that conveys information to the brain? ganglion cells
What does light reach before the photoreceptors? ganglion cells and bipolar cells
What is considered an extension of the brain? retina
What is the optic disk? region where the optic nerve exits the retina
What is another name for the optic disk? blindspot
Why is the optic disk termed the blind sot? because this region is devoid of rods and cones
What is the fovea? region of the retina that is devoid of rods
What is the fovea highly packed with? cones
True or False: blood vessels are displacedin the fovea true
Why are blood vessels displaced in the fovea? so that light can hit the cones directly
What is the region of highest visual acuity? fovea
What do nocturnal animals have instead of a fovea? visual streak
What does a visual streak contain? cones and ganglion cells
What is a visual streak associated with? visual acuity over horizons
Where is the lens found? just behind the iris and pupil
What is the lens made of? laers of transparent proteins
What is the lens held in place by? suspensory ligaments
What are the suspensory ligaments called that hold the lens in place? zonal fibers
What is the function of hte lens? to refract and focus light on the retina
What is the point called where light rays converge? focal point
What is the distance from lens to the focal point? focal length
What is the focal length measured in? dipoters/ meters
Waht does the lens separate? the anterior and posterior cavities of the eye
What is the anterior chamber filled with? aqueous humor
What is aqueous humor similar to? CSF
What is the pathway of flow for aqueous humor? through the camber and out through venous circulation
True or false: aqueous humor is continuously produced true
What is the function of aqueous humor? waste removal and aids in reducing intraocular pressure
What is the posterior chamber of the eye filled with? vitreous humor
What is vitreous humor like? jelly-like fluid
True or false: vitrious humor ins continuously produced false
What is the function of vitrous humor? maintain eye shape
What is myopia? near sighted
Where is the focal pint in myopia? anterior to retina
What is the fix for myopia? concave lenses
What is hyperopia? far sighted
Where is the focal point in hyperopia? posterior to the retina
What is the fix for hyperopia? convex lenses
What is presbyopia? loss of lens elasticity with age
What is the fix for presbyopia? bifocals
What is accomodation? primary mechanism of focusing for fine image detection by altering the shape of lenses
What does accomodation occur in response to? blurred vision
What controls accomodation in mammals? smooth muscles
True or false: smooth muscle control makes accomodation slow in mammals true
Why is accomodation faster in birds and reptiles? they use striated muscles instead of smooth muscles
What is the lens shape when ciliary muscles are relaxed? lens is flat
When is ciliary muscle reaction used? distance vision
What is the lens shape when ciliary muscle is contracted? curved
When is ciliary muscle contraction used? near vision
What happens when the ciliary muscle contracts? the ciliary body is moved forward the the zonal fibers relax allowing the lens to curve
What happens when the ciliary muscle is relaxed? the ciliary body causes tension in the zonal fibers and the lens is flat
What is the primary refractory structure in aquatic vertebrates? lens
What is focus in aquatic organisms dependent on? lens position
What type of muscle is used in accommodation in aquatic verbrates retractor muscle
What does the retractor muscle do in aquatic organisms? the retractor muscle moves the lens forward and baackwards
Does contraction/relaxation of retractor muscle move the lens forward or backwards? it depends on the species as to whether or not the contraction/relaxation moves the lens forward/backwards.
In aquatic organisms, where is the lens located in relation to the cornea? they are located in close proximity
Created by: kenzigustafson
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