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Fundies 2 Nutrition

NRTC

QuestionAnswer
What is the largest salivary gland parotid gland
What is the mouth's job in digestion receives food and breaks it down into smaller pieces. Starts digestive process with saliva.
What is the Pharynx connects nasal and oral cavities to esophagus.
how is food forced through the pharynx? by the tongue.
Where is the parotid gland located and what does it do? Located anterior and inferior to ear. Secrete saliva into mouth and begins digestion of amylase starches.
what propels food into the stomach from the pharynx using a muscular contraction called peristalsis? esophagus.
what organ's lining secretes mucus the esophagus
what prevents back flow like heartburn from esophagus to stomach? Lower esophageal sphincter
What quadrant is the stomach located? upper left quadrant
what organ connected to the pyloric sphincter, mixes food with secretions from liver and pancreas, finishes digestion, and absorbs nutrients. small intestine
6 vital nutrients proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals/electrolytes, water
why are nutrients vital to retain life. Body doesn't make these on its own. Requires consumption.
what is the water absorption organ? large intestine
what are two accessory organs that store and secrete bile into duodenum? liver and gullbladder
What begins the digestion of proteins stomach
What does the pancreas produce? Secretes alkaline digestive juices to protect Sm intestine. Pproduces insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.
What are some age related changes in the GI tract tooth loss, decreased gag reflex, sphincter muscle tone, smell, gastric secretions, and peristalsis.
What could decrease in gastric secretions cause can't absorb vitamin B12 or protein.
Decreased peristalsis can cause constipation
Decreased sphincter muscle tone can cause acid reflux
How many servings of veggies do you need? 3-5
how do you tell if a patient is dehydrated skin turger and mucous membranes.
metabolism has two parts. catabolism and anabolism
the speed at which food energy is used affected by lean muscle mass and hormones metabolic rate.
who might need increased hydration surgeries, colonoscopy, exercise, high temp, medications, burns,
protein provides how many calories per gram of energy? 4
Daily recommended intake of protein. 46-56g/day or 10-15%
Daily recommendation intake of fats 20% 10%or less in saturated and 10% in unsaturated
Daily recommendation intake of carbohydrates 45-65%
How many calories/gram of carbohydrate? 4
How many calories/gram of fat? 9
what are water soluble vitamins C and B complex
What are some fat soluble vitamins A-orange and yellow D-milk, eggs, sun E- broccoli, leafy greens K leafy greens... helps blood clot
7 major minerals calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfer
average output is 1000-1500 ml in 24 hours. call charge nurse if <700
an infants weight should be what by six months doubled
an infants weight should be what by a year? tripled
BMI range 18.5-24.9 above 25 overweight, above 30 obese, above 40 morbidly obese
what causes bowel sounds peristalsis moves time and gas through the intestines
normal Transit time in the intestines is 18 to 72 hours
feces is stored in the sigmoid colon until this initiates defecation gastrocolic reflex
what is the valsalva maneuver holding your breath in pushing pressure
atrophy and Villi in the elderly creates less absorption of vitamin B12
vitamin B12 deficiency is called pernicious anemia
should bowel habits change in a normal healthy individual no
at what age do you need a colonoscopy 50
poop that floats has a lot of what in it lipids, not normal
what are black stools in upper GI bleed called melena
fresh red blood in Colon presents a hemorrhoid
causes for hypoactive bowel sounds Immobility, injury, drugs, surgery
drugs that may contribute to constipation narcotics, anesthesia, diuretics, sedatives, anticholinergic, calcium channel blockers
drugs used for constipation stool softeners, bulk forming laxatives, stimulant laxatives, saline laxatives
what are some stool softeners Colace, surfak, dialose
what are some bulk forming laxative fibracol, Metamucil, citrucel
what are some irritant stimulant laxatives Dulcolax, Neolad, exlax, Senokot,
what are some saline laxatives citrate of magnesia, milk of Mag, phospho soda
what do hyperactive bowelsounds produce or result in what diarrhea
causes of hyperactive bowel sounds inflammation of GI tract , diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease,
medications used to control diarrhea opium, atropine ,Imodium, diphenoxylate
patients who experience diarrhea from antibiotics should replace normal flora by eating yogurt, drinking buttermilk, taking over the counter probiotics
causes for fecal incontinence illness, CVA, injury, neurogenic dysfunction
how to do a physical assessment of the abdomen shape auscultate percuss palpate
how do rectal suppositories help promote a bowel movement form gas that expands the rectum melt into a lubricating material to coat the stool for easier Passage
what position should a patient be in for a suppository Sims left with knee flexed
and enema should be held at what position 24in above patient
volume for enemas according to age infants- 20 to 150 ml ages 3 to 5- 200 to 300 ml school-age - 300 to 500 ml adults - 500 to 1000 ml
types of enemas retention, cleansing, distension, medicated, disposal, fleets-small volume(bottle)
what temperature should you have an enema can be room temp but better slightly warm
how many enemas are you allowed to do at a time 3 - dehydration
a digital stimulation to relax the anal sphincter needs a physician order
types of ostomies ileostomy and colostomy
illioanalanastomosis Connects ileum to anus can control bowel
what absorbs sodium water and chloride large intestine
what processes time into a more liquid state adds bile from the liver to help break down lipids and absorbs nutrients small intestine
what are the four layers of the intestinal wall mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
small intestine includes duodenum jejunum Ilium
what controls the flow of chyme into the large intestine ileocecal valve
parts of the large intestine ascending colon Traverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum anus
what three structures drain into the pancreas gallbladder liver
the pancreas neutralizes stomach acid which makes the small intestine more Alkaline
marasmus form of protein calorie malnutrition occurring chiefly in the first year of life. characterized by growth retardation and wasting of subcutaneous fat and muscle
kwashiorkor condition occur in an infants and young children soon after weaning from breast milk due to severe protein deficiency
what can a full liquid diet contain milk yogurt eggnog pudding custard ice cream pureed meat vegetable and cream soups sweetened gelatin vegetable juice cooked refined cereals strained or Blended gruel
what are foods allowed on a liquid diet juices broths water flavored drinks coffee tea gelatin ice clear-candies popsicles
after post operation a patient is usually put on a liquid diet after bowel sounds return
what percentage of Americans is overweight 65%
what deficiency is seen in alcohol abuse Thymin B1
one teaspoon of salt contains how many milligrams of sodium 2300 mg of sodium
normal glucose level 70 to 110
diabetes patients are at risk for what diseases cardiovascular kidney blindness stroke
what does HIV mean human immunodeficiency virus
muscle wasting in HIV or Aids patients is usually 10 to 20% of their muscle what is this called cachexia
what is the difference between a peg tube and a G-tube peg tube inserted endoscopically and G-tube inserted through traditional surgery
how do you measure the size for an internal tube ears to nose to xiphoid process
how long should you keep the head of the bed elevated after a tube feeding 30 to 60 minutes
when do you check the residue of a tube feeding before feedings and every 6 hours
Total parenteral Nutrition never goes into what a peripheral vein
with Total parenteral Nutrition you need to what not give anything by mouth all goes in vain. Check blood glucose
10% or greater of dextrose has to be inserted in the central line tpn
with partial parenteral nutrition you must have an isotonic solution and it can contain no more than... 10% dextrose or 5% of amino acids
when would you use a partial parenteral nutrition tube when the patient cannot eat for less than 10 days
what should you always look for in a t-pn solution cracking it will look like oil setting on top with bubbles
a patient has had colon surgery as a result of an intestinal obstruction. A method of delivering nutrition to avoid the gut would be Total parenteral Nutrition tpn
a stroke patient has dysphagia and is at high risk for aspiration. An internal tube into the small intestine is recommended by the surgeon. Which would be placed into the intestine jejunostomy tube
Unsaturated fats are what at room temperature Liquid
Saturated fats are what at room temp Solid
Created by: KesleyNRTC