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Biochemistry

Vocabulary for High School Biology Biochem unit

TermDefinition
Acid A compound that gives up a Hydrogen Ion when placed in water
Activation Energy The minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to occur
Adhesion Water sticking to molecules or surfaces other than water
Amino Acid the 20 building blocks (or monomers) of proteins. Consists of a Central Carbon, an amino group and a carboxyl group
Atom smallest part of an element that can retain the properties of that element
Base A compound that will freely bond with a hydrogen ion in water. Ex. -OH
Buffer A solution or liquid that resist changes in pH (acidity)
Carbohydrate -Biological Macromolecule consisting of sugars and starches -Provides short term energy
Catalyst A molecule that helps a chemical reaction to occur, but does not get used up in the reaction.
Cohesion Water molecules sticking to (being attracted to) other water molecules
Compound Synonym for a molecule; two or more different chemical elements bonded together
Covalent bond Two atoms bonded together by SHARING electrons
Dehydration Synthesis Chemical reaction that builds larger molecules from smaller ones by removing water
Denaturation Causing a protein or enzyme to change shape or unfold and become non-functional. Usually caused by temperature change, pH, or salt.
Element A pure substance that can't be broken down any further and still retain it's properties
Electron Negatively charged particle that surrounds the nucleus of an atom
Enzyme - a biological catalyst -a protein that helps a chemical reaction to occur but is not used up in the reaction
Fatty Acid -A long chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. -building block/monomer of lipids
Freezing Point -Temperature at which a liquid turns to a solid -the freezing point of water is 32 degrees F or 0 degrees C
Hydrogen Bond Weak bond or attraction between two molecules due to opposite charges (+/-)
Hydrolysis Breaking large molecules (macromolecules) apart into smaller parts by adding water to break the chemical bonds
hydrophobic Water fearing or water hating. Non polar substances that do not mix well with water.
Ion A charged atom. An atom with extra or missing electrons.
Ionic Bond A bond between two or more atoms where the electrons are TRANSFERRED from one atom to the other.
Isomer Molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures. They are bonded together in a different pattern.
Isotope Atoms with nontypical masses because they have different amounts of Neutrons
Lipid -Biological/Macromolecule that consists of fats and oils -Nonpolar and hydrophobic .... doesn't mix with water
Lock and Key Model Enzyme and Substrate are specific to one another. Each substrate 'fits' into the enzyme like a key enters a lock
Macromolecule -One of four types of large molecules that are important to life -Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Monomer -Building block of larger molecules -Monosaccharides, Fatty Acids, Glycerol, Amino Acids, Nucleotides
Monosaccharide -a single sugar molecule such as glucose -Monomer of carbohydrates
Neutron Neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
Nucleic Acid -Biological Macromolecule that consists of DNA or RNA - Store and pass Genetic Material
Organic Chemistry The chemistry of Carbon
Peptide Bond Bond that joins Amino Acids together to make proteins
pH A measurement of how acidic or basic a substance is
Physical Chemistry the study of how atoms interact with one another to form matter
Plasma (Cell) Membrane -Skin that surrounds a cell protecting it from the environment and holding all of the contents in place. -Made of Phospholipids. -Semipermiable
Polarity A molecule that has opposite charges (+/-) in different areas.
Polymer Many monomers joined together to make a larger molecule
Polysaccharide a very large carbohydrate molecule consisting of 3 or more monosaccharides bonded together
Products The end result of a chemical reaction
Protein -Biological molecule made of Amino Acids -Builds and repairs tissues
Proton Positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
Reactants The molecules that enter a chemical reaction
Solution An evenly mixed liquid containing two or more substances. Solute = solid Solvent = liquid
Specific Heat -The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius -How difficult a substance is to heat up or cool down
Temperature A measure of the amount of heat (kinetic energy) a substance contains
Triglyceride A LIPID consisting of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
Universal Solvent -WATER!!!! -Being a polar molecule water can dissolve more substance that any other liquid
Created by: juddadiah