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Sociology Chapter 9

Sex Refers to an individuals membership in one of the two biologically distinct categories-male or female
Gender Refers to the physical, behavioral, and personality traits that a group considers normal for its male and female members
Gender Identity Refers to an individuals self-definition or sense of gender
Gender Expression Refers to an individuals behavioral manifestations of gender
Essentialists See gender as biological or genetic and believe gender is a binary system determined by your chromosomes, hormones, and genitalia
Constructionist See sex, gender, and sexuality as social construct
Queer Theorists Emphasize the importance of differences and rejects ideas of innate identities or restrictive categories of gender and sexual identity
Sexual Orientation Inclination to be heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual
Sex, gender, and sexuality are all bases of hierarchies of _____ in our society Inequality
Homophobia Fear of or discrimination towards homosexuals or toward individual who display purportedly gender-inappropriate behavior
Functionalists Believe that there are social roles better suited to one gender than the other, and that societies are more stable when certain tasks are done by the appropriate sex
Instrumental Role Person who provides the family's material support and is often an authority figure (most likely men)
Expressive Role Person who provides the family's emotional support and nurturing (most likely women)
Conflict Theorists Believe men have historically had access to most of society's material resources and privileges, therefore it is in their interest to try to maintain their dominant position
Interactionists Emphasize how the concept of gender is socially constructed, maintained, and reproduced in our everyday lives
Feminist Theorists Apply assumptions about gender inequalities to social institutions to illuminate how gender inequality affects all areas of social life
Gender Role Socialization The lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine, primarily through agents of socialization: families, schools, peers, and the media
Families Usually the primary source of socialization and greatly impact gender role socialization
Social Learning Theory Suggests that babies and children learn behaviors and meanings through social interaction and internalize the expectations of those around them
Schools Socialize children into gender roles that accord with their sex
Peer Groups Important agent of socialization
Media TV, Movies, Magazines, Books, Video Games, etc.
Feminization of Poverty Refers to the economic trend that women are more likely than men to live in poverty, due to in part to the gendered gap in wages, the higher proportion of single mothers compared to single fathers, and increasing the cost of child care
Feminism Belief in the social, political, and economic inequality of the sexes and the social movements organized around that belief
Womens Movement: 1st Wave Mid-19th Century-1920: Focused on gaining suffrage for women
Womens Movement: 2nd Wave 1960's-1970's: Focused on women's equal access to employment and education
Womens Movement: 3rd Wave 1980's-Present: Focused on diversity among women's experiences and identities
Male Liberationism Originated in the 70's to discuss the challenges of masculinity
Created by: aleahgoodson



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