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Exam 2

Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
These are prokaryotes that grow in severe conditions: extremophiles
Prokaryotic cells divide by _________ ________: binary fission
What type of growth involves population doubling during each division? exponential growth
This is the time it takes for population to double: generation time
What environmental conditions influence generation time? nutrients and temperature
Generation time depends on: bacterial species (genetics) and its growth conditions
These are polysaccharide-encased communities: biofilms
This system results in nutrients not being renewed and waste not being removed closed systems
This system is required to maintain growth and nutrients are added but wastes are removed continuously: open systems
Lag phase, exponential (log) phase, stationary phase, and death phase are all: stages of a population growth curve
During this phase the number of cells do not increase and begin synthesizing enzymes required for growth: Lag phase
During this phase cells divide at a constant rate and are most sensitive to antibiotics (endospore formation begins) Exponential (log) phase
During this stage nutrient levels are now too low to sustain log growth and total number of bacteria in the population remain constant so for every cell that divides, two cells die: Stationary phase
During this stage the total number of viable cells decrease and die at a constant rate: Death phase
Which bacteria have this temp range: 5-15 degrees Celsius? Pyschrophile
Which bacteria have this temp range: 25-30 degrees Celsius? Psychrotroph
Which bacteria have this temp range: 25-45 degrees Celsius? Mesophile
Which bacteria have this temp range: 45-70 degrees Celsius? Thermophiles
Which bacteria have this temp range: 70-122 degrees Celsius? Hyperthermophiles
These are found in Arctic and Antarctic regions: Psychrophile
These are important in food spoilage: Psychrotroph
These are common in hot springs: Thermophiles
These are usually members of Archaea found in hydrothermal vents, volcanoes Hyperthermophiles
These undergo aerobic respiration and require oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in ETS aerobes
These do not use aerobic metabolism; toxic forms of oxygen are harmful to these bacteria: anaerobes
These can maintain life via fermentation, anaerobic respiration, or by aerobic respiration: Facultative anaerobes
These do not use aerobic metabolism but have enzymes that detoxify oxygen's poisonous forms: aerotolerant anaerobes
These are aerobes that require oxygen levels from 2 to 10%, use aerobic respiration, and have a limited ability to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals: Microaerophiles
This grows only when O2 is available: obligate aerobe
This grows best when O2 is available, but also grows without it: facultative anaerobe
This cannot grow when O2 is present: obligate anaerobe
This grows only if small amounts of O, are available: microaerophile
This grows equally well with or without O aerotolerant anaerobe
______________ grow optimally at pH below 5.5: Acidophiles
______________ grow optimally at pH above 8.5: Alkaliphiles
These withstand up to 10% NaCl: Halotolerant
These require high salt concentrations up to 9%: Halophiles
These require 9-30% salt concentrations: extreme halophiles
____________ use organic carbon: heterotrophs
_____________ use inorganic carbon as CO2 (carbon fixation) autotrophs
______________ bacteria have complicated nutritional requirements: fastidious
These obtain energy from sunlight; carbon from CO2: photoautotrophs
These obtain energy from sunlight; carbon from organic compounds: photoheterotrophs
These obtain energy from inorganic compounds; carbon from CO2: chemolithoautotrophs
These obtain energy and carbon from organic compounds: chemoorganoheterotrophs
These are aerobic bacteria that require increased CO2: capnophiles
These can incubate in gas-tight container with a chemical packet: microaerophilic
Created by: tparker31