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Pitch The frequency of a sound; it relates to the highness or lowness of a tone that we hear
Octave The repetition of the twelve pitches
Scale A group of notes in ascending and descending pitch
Rhythm The timing of the musical sounds or notes in the music
Beat The basic time unit within a piece of music
Syncopation Involves placing emphasis on normally un-emphasized beats or using a rest on a normally emphasized beat.
Tempo The speed of a given piece of music
Metronome Device that produces regular ticks or beats according to the beats per minute
Dynamics Refers to the loudness or softness of a note, as well as the quality of the note as played
Subito forzando A sudden change in the level of sound
Timbre The tone quality of a sound; it is what helps to distinguish one musical instrument from another
Melody A series of musical notes that have been strung together
Melodic phrases Groups or sets of notes that make sense together, express a musical idea, and, when combined, create the melody
Harmony Having more than one pitch within the music at the same time
Form Helps to give structure to a composition; composers often combined them as they created new types of music
12-bar blues A chord progression that is common in many popular forms of music
Common meter Music form that consists of four lines of a particular number of beats that end in the rhyming pattern of a-b-a-b.
Concerto A musical piece in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra
Sonata A large-scale composition that is played
Symphony A longer musical composition scored for an orchestra
Popular Music Any music since industrialization in the mid-1800s that is in line with the tastes and preferences of the middle class
Pop music Music produced for a mass audience with typically shorter songs about love and other existing themes
Verse-chorus structure Alternates verses with a repeating chorus
Thirty-two bar AABA form; a series of verses is interrupted by a bridge
Billboard Produced music charts, which helped to increase the popularity of pop music
British Invasion In the 1960s, British pop groups such as the Beatles became popular in North America
Disco One musical genre that developed in the 1970s
MTV Began airing music videos in the early 1980s
Boy Band Featured between three and six young adult males who typically sang, but did not play instruments
Prehistoric or primitive music Includes all music created in preliterate cultures
Archaeomusicology The use if archaeological techniques in the study of music
Pech Merle A French cave that has red dots on the ceiling of the cave to note these special acoustic spots in the cave
Divje Babe Flute Found in Slovenia, it appears to date about 50,000 years ago
Ancient Music Music produced by early literate societies
Hurrian song Refers to a set of fragmentary relics as well as a nearly complete example of notated music from around 1400 BCE
Samaveda A collection of hymns from India
Natya Shastra A written discourse on the performing arts, including music, dance, stage performances, and so on
Monophonic Having a single melody with no accompaniment
Lyric Poetry Included poems that were accompanied by instrumental music, often from a lyre.
Medieval music The music that was produced in medieval Europe
Chants Also known as plainsong; a type of monophonic sacred music
Gregorian chants Often sung my male choirs and the music is still used in worship today.
Modes A series of pitches in predefined order, with specific intervals between each point.
Polyphonic Music that uses two or more independent melodies
Organum The addition of a second music, sung in tandem, to Gregorian chants
Ars Nova A musical form that became popular in the late medieval period, it featured multiple voices with a complex rhythm
Troubadors Traveling poet-musicians who traveled from place to place, singing and performing for the nobility
Neumes Signs written above the chant words to indicate where the voices should rise and where they should fall in tone
Renaissance music Typically thought of as European music that developed during the Renaissance period.
Canon A piece of music where one part echoes or imitates what the other part has just sang for a relatively substantial section of the music
Consort An instrumental ensemble consisting of six instruments
Mouthharp This instrument was developed long before the Renaissance and it produces different tones depending on the vibration produced
Sagbut A type of trombone that was used in churches with Sacred Music pieces
Shawms A 12in double reed woodwind 7 finger holes
Viols Were developed in the 15th century and were played with bows. They had six strings and the instrument was rested between the musicians legs in a similar position to what we are used to seeing cellos played today
Hurdy-gurdy Also known as the wheel fiddle; this instrument features strings that are surrounded by a wheel which is turned by a crank mechanism
Motets "A piece of music and several parts with words" and they involve varied choral compositions. In Latin, the term describes "the movement of different voices against one another"
Chorales Easy to sing Melodies often based on traditional folk songs
Madrigals Voice composition that employ a number of voices (often from 3 to 6) but are unaccompanied by instruments
Antiphon Voices or instruments start from the right side and are followed by Voices From the left
Created by: Wallaby