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microbiology ch 12

antimicrobial treatment

nametargetmethodextra tidbits
cycloserine cell wall interferes with cross bridges that link NAM subunits
bacitracin cell wall blocks secretion of NAM and NAG fro m the cytoplasm
isoniazid cell wall disrupts the formation of mycolic acid in mycobacterial species
ethambutol cell wall disrupts the formation of mycolic acid in mycobacterial species
flouroquinolones nucleic acid synthesis DNA gyrase/topoisomerase broad spectrum
rifamycin/rifampin nucleic acid synthesis bacterial RNA polymerase
metronidazole nucleic acid synthesis (bacteria and parasites) interferes with DNA replication enzymes same process as for parasites
aminoglycosides protein synthesis changes shape of 30s subunit causes misreading of RNA and false translation
tetracycline protein synthesis (bacteria and parasites) binds to 30s subunit inhibits binding of tRNA to the mRNA -ribosome complex - no protein is synthesized
chloramphenicol protein synthesis binds to the 50s subunit formation of peptide bond is blocked
oxazolidinone protein synthesis binds to P site of 50s subunit prevents binding of subunits; no ribosome no protein synthesis
erythromycin protein synthesis physically occupies the 50s ribosome near the active site ribosome is prevented from translocating
polymixins cell membrane interacts with membrane phospholipids distorts the surface, causes leakage of protein and nitrogen bases. hydrophobic tail causes damage. Gram neg toxic to kidneys.
sulfonamides folic acid synthesis (bacteria and parasites) competitive inhibition prevents enzymatic work on PABA in folic acid synthesis
trimethoprim folic acid synthesis competitive inhibition prevents step immediately after step inhibited by sulfonamides. often given with sulfa drugs.
amantadine viruses receptor/fusion/uncoating inhibitor blocks entry by interfering with fusion of virus with cell membrane; stops entry and uncoating
rimantadine viruses attachment/uncoating attempts to stop attachment; if this fails it tries to prevent uncoating
protease inhibitors viruses inserts into HIV protease inhibitors prevents the splitting of polyproteins
zidovudine (AZT) viruses nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors
acyclovir viruses nucleotide analog inhibits DNA polymerase
quinine parasites interferes with parasites ability to digest hemoglobin anti-malarial
beta-lactams cell wall blocks cross-linkages of NAM subunits penicillin, cephalosporin
vancomycin cell wall interferes with cross bridges that link NAM subunits
Created by: bellajerrent429