Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

pharmacology osce


Thiazide diuretics - inhibits Na/Cl transporter in the distal convulted tubule(kidney) - less Na/Cl resorption = less water reabsorption - reduces Blood pressure SE: Potassium loss - use with angiotensin receptor blockers
Calcium channel blockers - antihypertensive - VERAPAMIL - By acting on vascular smooth muscle, they reduce contraction of the arteries and cause an increase in arterial diameter, a phenomenon called vasodilation - have no effects on HR so used on angina patients
Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers - SARTANs ( avapro ) -Antihypertensive - blocks the ang2 receptor, blocking ang2 from binding - ang2 is a vasoconstricter therefore blocking causes vessel dilation -SE: hyperkalemia: use with a thiazide diuretic
Beta blockers -LOLs -antihypertensive - bind to beta cell receptors, stop epinephrine from binding (adrenaline) Blocking epinephrine decreases heart contracts + force - therefore reduces blood pressure. SE: erectile dysfunction, insomnia / nightmares
Protein pump inhibitor -ZOLES -reflux medication - reduces stomach acid production - inhibits the hydrogen/potassium ATP enzyme - proton pump is at the terminal stage of stomach acid production SE: increase risk of fractures as it has vitamin b-12 problems > neurop aetiol
Warfarin -anticoagulant - inhibits vitamin k reductase, vit k is an activator of coagulating factors SE: hemorrhage, tissue necrosis, GI effects
GABA analogue -Anti-convulsant / nerve pain (LYRICA) - re balances neurotransmitters by: reducing substance P + glutamate levels and restores the release of noreipinephrine ( neurotransmitter ) SE: loss of balance ( falls risk), blurred vision
methotrexate - immunosuppresent -ra / cancer - inhibits tetrahydrolate which is necessary to create DNA SE: infection risks
Antibiotics -bacterial infections - the 3 x inhibits + 2 modifications SE: gut floral effects > nutrition / resistance to ABs
Salbutamol Asthma / b2- agonist - BRONCHODILATOR - stimulates cells to bronchodilate + decreases mast cell degrenulation SE: anxiety / muscle cramps / headache
Colchicine Anti-gout agent / acute attacks - doesn't lower uric acid however works to block inflammation caused by urc acids (12-24hrs) - quite toxic , dont use with liver problems - aspirin can worsen gout
Allopurinol Anti-gout agent / long term use - inhibits xanthine oxidase which is responcible for uric acid production - itchiness / rash
Statins -DISLIPEDEMIA / used for High cholestrol - Statins are similar structure to HMG-COA reductase, competitively bind for binding site. - Stops the production of mevlonate which is key in the production of cholestrol SE: myalgia>rhabdomyolysis>kidney fai
Aspirin -Anti-platelet - weak inhibitor of platelet aggregation - indirect thromboxane inhibitor + inhibits the platelet cox-1 enzyme SE: excess bleeding
acetaminophen -Analgesic PARACETAMOL - mechanism isn't understood / selectively inhibits the COX enzyme in the brain SE: dark urine / coloured stools /nausea
Opiate CODENE analgesic / pain releif - binds to piod receptors in the brain which are necessary for pain transmission - respiratory depretion / sedation / vomitting
ace inhibitors -antihypertensive PRILs - inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme. ang1>2 ( vasoconstrictor) - vasodilation > r educed sat / water retention - SE cough / headache / back pain
biguanside - metformine - 1st line of treatment t2dm - requires insulin - increases insulin sensitivity - decreaes hepatic glucose prod / GI absorption of glucose / LDL - No risk of weight gain / hypoglycaemia SE: gi effects
sulphonylureus T2DM - GLICAZIDE - stimulates beta cells to release insulin - binds to solfonylurea receptors on pacreatic beta cells, the binding causes closure of potassium channels > depolorisation > creation of insulin -SE weight gain / risk of hypoglycaemia
NSAIDs - analgesic - inhibits cox-1 /2 which are involved in inflammation -SE: GI ulcers / bleeding - use acetimnophen (paracetemol) where possible, less side effects
Humira TNF alpha antagonist used for arthritis
corticosteroids -prendnisolone / cortisone -Bonds to glucocorticoid receptor incide cell nucleus, which then inhibits transcription on inflammatory genes.
Created by: lolcasaaaa22
Popular Earth Science sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards