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Radiation Protection

chapter 1, 3, and 4

atoms are.. neutral
atomic number is known as.. # of protons is
atomic mass is known as.. protons plus neutrons
alpha radiation does not.. does not penetrate as well as other types of radiation.
size of alpha particles very large radiation
do alpha particles move slow or fast? slow moving particles
are film badges sensitive to alpha radiation? no
are alpha particles used in medical use no
speed and size of beta particles high speed electrons that are small (bullet)
where are beta particles produced? in or near the nucleus
are beta particles used medically? yes in therapeutic radiation
frequencie is.. # of wavelengths per second
wavelength is.. distance between the waves
amplitude is.. height of waves
the higher the energy of electromagnetic radiation the better... it can penetate
x-rays are produced.. outside the nucleus
gamma rays are produced.. inside the nucleus
roentgen measures.. ionization in air=coulombs
what is measure of absorbed dose? Rad=Gray
what is measure of occupational? Rem=Sievert
What measures rate of nuclear decay of material? Curie/Becquerel measures
What is half life? time it takes for radioactive material to decay to 50% of its original
alpha is made up of what? 2 protons and 2 neutrons
how much energy does alpha carry? ALOT
Who discovered the naturally o curing substances emitted from radiation? Becquerel
Who named alpha, beta, and gamma Rutherford
What is the mass and charge for x-ray and gamma? No charge
from left to right name the wavelength... gamma, x-rays, visible light, microwave, radio
What is measured in the film badge? Rem; Sievert
What is capable of providing an immediate reading? Pocket dosimeter
Which is the least expensive radiation monitoring device? Film Badge
How many half life values are required to 100R/minute exposure rate to 25R/minute? 2
X-rays can only be focused by a collimator. TRUE/FALSE FALSE
In the production of characteristic radiation at the tungston target, the incoming electron does what? ejects an inner-shell electron
Irradiation of water molecules within the body, and their resulting breakdown is termed what? radiolysis
Compton interaction affects the making of a radiograph by increasing what? FOG
The x-ray interaction within the diagnostic radiographic range that does not cause ionization is... classical/coherent/thompson usually occurs under 10 keV
The output of an x-ray machine is usually measured as... exposure to roentgens
which is most important in reducing patient dose? collimation
The reduction of the intensity of radiation as it passes through a material is known as what? attenuation
What is a radiation survey instrument? cutie-pie
Radiation monitoring instruments depend on what? ionization
What radiation monitoring device is considered most accurate? Optically stimulated Iluminescence dosimeter (OSL) b/c its not heat sensitive
Number of disintegration per second is? becquerel (curie)
What is the cumulative dose equivalent limits for a 25 year old radiation worker? 250msv (25rem)
What are 2 types of general types of radiation detection devices? Field survey and personnel monitoring
a beta particle can carry.. a positive or negative charge
mas= quanity
kvp= quality
If it is assumed that there is no threshold dose of radiation, this means that.. even small amounts of radiation are potentially harmful.
Which 2 organizations responsible for promoting professionalism among techs? ASRT & TS/SNM
The generally significant dose is increasing as a result of what? defensive medicine & increased diagnostic efficacy
What is the relationship between law and ethics? Law is based on ethics
Primary Purpose of licensure? to improve patient care
One rad is equal to how many grays? 0.01
the measurement of radiation by scientific means is.. dosimetry
The field monitoring device that functions similarly to the automatic exposure control in an x-ray unit is the: scintillation counter
What personnel device provides the best legal record? film badge
Reading on a radiation dosimetry report indicated what? minimal exposure
What are the 2 polyenergetic for a given atom? x-radiation and beta radiation
The half value layer of gamma radiation from a given atom is the same, no matter how many thickness of material the radiation has passed through. TRUE/FALSE TRUE
The rate in which energy is deposited in matter describes.. linear energy transfer
As Z number increases the probability of compton scatter does what? decreases
When electrons strive to fill shells and give off x-rays in the process is known as what? characteristic cascade
Which causes excitation rather than ionization? coherent/classical/thompson
What is most likely an outer-orbit interaction? compton scatter
which of the following is the basis for using lead aprons? photoelectric effect
Advantages of a film badge... cheap, easy to handle and process, permanent record of exposure, wide range of sensitivity
Disadvantages of a film bade... wait for reading, accurate at only 10 mrem or higher, fogging
traditionally you can film badges for how long? one month
How long can TLD's be worn? 3 months
Advantages of a TLD.. tissue equivalent, worn 3 months, can be re-used, highly accurate, do not fog
Disadvantages of a TLC... $$, no permanent record
TLD stands for.. Thermoluminescent dosimeters
Advantages of a pocket dosimeter... immediate readings, used for people who are not normally monitored like visitors. must be re calibrated daily.
Disadvantages of a pocket dosimeter... easy to misread, chemicals can leak causing misread, and also mechanical trauma can change the reading.
3 types of field survey instruments.. ionization chamber, geiger-mueller counter, scintillation counter
what field survey instrument is housed in the detector probe? geiger-mueller counter
the detector probe does what? it is a very thin window, and it allows for the detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. It is not sensitive to very low particles however.
In a nuclear medicine lab where radioactive materials are stored is an example of what? a GM
What produces small flashes of light upon exposure to radiation which can be measured? scintillation counter
the most sensitive detector in the field survey is.. the scintillation counter
what field survey detector is most widely used? ionization chamber b/c they are accurate and sensitive to a wide range of radiation, and they are also Portable!
pair production usually happen in what keV? above 1.02, does not usually occur until 10 mev has been reached
x-ray and gamma radiation are considered to be low -LET because/low Si radiation b/c... very penetrating, do not give up on energy quickly, not a high rate of ionization per cent., & do little bio damage.
Alpha and Beta are considered high-LET/high Si because... do not penetrate well, give up on energy, and cause lrg. rate of ionization per cent, and cause a lot of damage
Created by: chrystal87