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Lab 1 exam


Microscope procedures: 1) Carry it correctly : One hand in handle, one hand under base.
2)Connect power: Plug it in, turn on the lamp
3) Move stage down (or tube up) Move lenses away from stage.: Use coarse focus knob to move objective lenses away from stage.
4) Position lowest power lens: shortest objective lens is 4x Magnification. The ocular is 10x Total magnification 40 x
5) Move condenser up: Lens below hole in stage. It focuses light on specimen, should be all the way up.
6) Open iris (controls amount of light that gets from lamp to specimen) Blue glass filer- move out of the way.
7) Secure and center slide: Move specimen over light.
8) Move stage up (or tube down) move lenses closer to stage: use coarse focus (big) knob.
9) Look in and focus away: move stage down, use coarse focus.
10) Switch to higher powers: Safe to switch, focus with fine focus and calculate the total magnification.
The 100 x Lens requires oil and is used for hematology and microbiology.
Magnification: Enlargement of optical image. Light enters eye, hits rods and cones, signals to brain.
Resolution: The ability to distinguish parts, and it is improved by magnification.
Working Distance: Distance from the lens to the slide. As Magnification increases depth of field decreases.
What is the depth of field? How does it change? Depth of field is the distance from the lens in focus-a slice. The focus is upside-down slide.
How is magnification calculated? To get the total magnification take the power of the objective (4X, 10X, 40x) and multiply by the power of the eyepiece, usually 10X.
What is the diameter of field? How big is the field? How does it change when you increase the power- Does it get smaller or larger? The diameter of field is the distance across the field of view.
Going to high power on a microscope decreases the area of the field of view. The field of view is inversely proportional to the magnification of the objective lens.
For example, if the diameter of your field of view is 1.78 millimeters under 10x magnification, a 40x objective will be one-fourth as wide, or about 0.45 millimeters.
The specimen appears larger with a higher magnification because a smaller area of the object is spread out to cover the field of view of your eye.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Cells are closely packed.
Where do you find Epithelial tissue? You will always find these cells on a bed of connective tissue.
The primary function of the basement membrane is to anchor down the epithelium to its loose connective tissue (the dermis) underneath
Epithelial tissues are avascular- Do not have any blood cells .
Simple Epithelium: Simple Epithelium includes-Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Pseudo stratified.
Cell Shapes: Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar.
Simple Squamous: Simple squamous means there is only one layer.
Location of simple Squamous cells: They are found where rapid diffusion is required, such as: The Cardiovascular lining, and Alveoli (The alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place).
Simple Cuboidal: Simple Cuboidal means there is a single layer. (Shaped like octopus legs, with many nuclei)
Location of simple Cuboidal cells: They are found in the kidney tubules and Thyroid follicles.
Simple Columnar: Simple Columnar means a single layer, are shaped like columns and the nuclei -little circles are close to the basement membrane (the bottom)
Location of simple columnar: They are found in the gastrointestinal lining, the uterine lining, and gall bladder lining.
Pseudostratified: The cells all touch the base and not all reach the surface, gives false stratified look. Little hairs on the top.
Location of Pseudostratified: They are located in the upper respiratory tract.
Stratified Epithelium contains: Squamous and Transitional.
Difference between simple VS. Stratified Simple means one layer and stratified is multiple layers.
Stratified Squamous: Shaped like fried eggs, squished at the top and rounder below. (Flat and scale like?)
Location of Stratified Epithelium: They are found on the body surface, oral cavity, esophagus, and vagina.
Transitional Epithelium: Rounded cells on the surface
Location of Transitional Epithelium: They are located in the ureter and urinary bladder.
Questions will be phrased: 8 of these questions * EX The Kidney tubules are lined with _________ : Choose the correct answer Simple Cuboidal.
The lining of the mouth is covered with?*EX Stratified squamous.
The esophagus is covered with?*EX Stratified Squamous.
What gland has no duct? Endocrine glands have no ducts.
What gland has ducts? Exocrine glands have ducts.
What are Globet cells, what is their function, and where are they found? The main role of goblet cells is to secrete mucus in order to protect the mucous membranes where they are found. Goblet cells accomplish this by secreting mucins, large glycoproteins formed mostly by carbohydrates chains attached to a polypeptide.
They can be found on the surfaces of epithelial respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts.
Loose Connective Tissue: Areolar and Adipose
Areolar Tissue: Hair like look. has a complex matrix- Fibroblast make matrix- Matrix has: Hyaluronic Acid, Collagen, Elastin, and Reticulin.
Location of Areolar: This tissue is found under the skin, in the Hypodermis or Subcutaneous.
What do the mast cells do? They store Histamine- (compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions- released with tissue damage)
Adipose Tissue: Adipose cells store fat- the matrix is made of Reticulin fibers.
Location of Adipose: They are located in the Hypodermis.
Dense Connective Tissue: White Fibrous, Yellow Elastic.
White Fibrous Regular: Cells are fibroblasts (wavy like). Matrix has: Collagen(Collagen is flexible but not stretchable).
Location of White Fibrous: They are located in the tendons and ligaments.
White fibrous irregular: Found in the dermis
Yellow Elastic: Cells are fibroblasts- The matrix is made of Elastin.
Location of Yellow Elastic: They are located in the Artery Walls.
Cartilage contains: Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibro.
Hyaline Cartilage: Cells are in lacunae- The matrix: Chondroitin sulfate and collagen.
Location of Hyaline Cartilage: They are located in the airway, costal, and skeletal.
Elastic Cartilage: Cells in lacunae Matrix- Chondroitin sulfate, collagen, and elastin.
Location of Elastic Cartilage: They are located on the external ear and Epiglottis.
Cartilage is avascular.
Bone contains: Compact and spongy.
Compact Bone: Osteocytes in lacunae, osteoclast, osteoblasts. Matrix: Hydroxyapatite( Calcium Phosphate), Collagen, Haversian Systems.
Location of Compact Bone: They are found on the bone "surface"
Spongy Bone: Cells osteocytes in lacunae, osteoclasts, osteoblasts. Matrix- Hydroxyapatite (Calcium Phosphate), collagen, NO haversian systems.
Location of Spongy Bone: They are located on the bone " Framework"
What is it that makes bone tissue flexible a little, but very rigid- Two things: collage, and calcium phosphate.
Is there a protein that is flexible but not stretchable found in connective tissue? What is the name? Collagen
Know Bone terms: Diaphysis (shaft)
Epiphysis(End of bone)
Cavity (Has marrow inside)
Endosteum (lining of cavity)
Periosteum (around the bone)
Articular Cartilage- There is cartilage in between bones.
Haversian Systems: repeating structural units that make up dense bone tissue / also called osteons. The circles in the compact bone. Only fund in compact bone
Ossification: The formation of bone. During the fetal stage of development this occurs by two processes: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.
Intramembranous ossification: involves the formation of bone from connective tissue. Usually the flat bones of the skull but also the mandible, maxilla, and clavicle.
Endochondral ossification: involves the formation of bone from cartilage. occurs in long bones and most other bones in the body; it involves the development of bone from cartilage.
Where do you find mucous membranes and serous membranes? Mucous membranes can be found in lining hollow, open organ systems. Such as in : Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Urinary, Reproductive.
Serous Membranes: can be found in hollow lining, hollow sacs around organs. Such as: The pleurae, pericardium, and peritoneum. Ex: Sac around your heart. If its a closed cavity it would be a serous membrane.
Nerve Tissue: This includes Neurons, cell bodies, dendrites, and axons.
MUSCLE TISSUE: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth.
Skeletal muscle: Tubes with vertical groove/stripe like and many nuclei.
Location of skeletal muscle: They are found in voluntary muscle.
Cardiac Muscle: Block like, has vertical grooves or stripes. the nucleus are big and in the middle.
Location of Cardiac Muscle: They are only located in the heart.
Smooth Muscle: Spindle like - tapered at the ends: no grooves or vertical stripes. Nucleus is central.
Location of Smooth Muscle: Walls of hollow organs.
2 of these can reproduce (mitosis) and replace themselves: Epithelium and bone can reproduce.
Connective and nerve can't be replaced.
Lining of your mouth is always replacing, your skin, bones. Nerve cells will not replace. Muscle tissue can’t be replaced.
THE SKIN It has two layers: The Dermis and Epidermis
Hypodermis The Hypodermis is under the skin (not part of the skin)
Color of skin: The color of the skin is produced by melanin (Melanin is transferred t skin cells. Melanin protects us from Ultraviolet protection.
Burns: The rule of 9s
Hemaglobin: Hgb- Heaglobe red of/from blood)
Skin Functions: The skin fluid barrier- waterproof. It also protects us from infection, Helps us with heat exchange, and assess environment: Touch, Temperature, and pain.
EPIDERMIS: Made out of stratified squamous epithelium
Epidermal Cells: Have keratinocytes. Keratin can be found in: Skin, hair, silk, wool, nails, claws, hoovers
Epidermal cells have soft and hard fibrous protein and are very insoluble in water.
Epidermal cells also have Melanocytes. Melanocytes produce melanin.
Dermis Structure: Dense white fibrous tissue and is vascular (has blood vessels) and it has nerve endings. The cells include: Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Adipose.
Created by: alecamila



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