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Sociology Chapter 8

Race Socially defined category based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people
Ethnicity Socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor
Sociologists see race and ethnicity as social constructions because: 1. Race isn't based on biology 2. Racial categories change over time 3. Racial categories never have firm boundaries
Ethnicity can be displayed or hidden, but ____ is always on display Race
Symbolic Ethnicity Ethnic identity that is only relevant on specific occasions and does not significantly impact every day life
Situational Ethnicity An ethnic identity that can be either displayed or concealed, depending on its usefulness in a given situation
Minority Group Social group that is systematically denied access to power and resources available to the dominant groups of a society
Racism Set of beliefs about the claimed superiority of one racial or ethnic group
Color-Blind Racism Ideology that removes race as an explanation for any form of unequal treatment
Prejudice (Thought Process) Idea about characteristics of a group (unlikely to change)
Discrimination (Action) Unequal treatment of individuals because of their social group, motivated by prejudice
Individual Discrimination Discrimination carried out by one person against another
Institutional Discrimination Systematic discrimination carried out by social institutions that affect all members of a group who come into contact with it
Functionalist Theorists Focus on the ways that race creates social ties and strengthens group bonds
Conflict Theory Focuses on the struggle for power and control over scarce resources
Symbolic Interactionists Focus on the ways that race, class, and gender intersect to produce an individual's identity
Racial Passing Double-Consciousness- W.E.B. DuBois's term for the divided identity experienced by blacks in the U.S.
Genocide Deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, national, or cultural group
Population Transfer Forcible removal of a group of people from the territory they have occupied
Internal Colonialism Economic and political domination and subjugation of the minority group by the controlling group within a nation
Segregation The formal and legal separation of groups by race or ethnicity
Assimilation Minority group is absorbed into the mainstream or dominant group, making society more homogenous
Racial Assimilation Racial minority groups are absorbed into the dominant group through intermarriage
Cultural Assimilation Racial or ethnic groups are absorbed into the dominant group by adopting the dominant group's culture
Pluralism (Multiculturalism) Pattern of intergroup relations that encourage racial and ethnic variation within a society
Created by: aleahgoodson