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Sociology Chapter 7

Social Stratification The division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
Social Inequality Unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society
Slavery Most extreme form of social stratification and is based on the legal ownership of people
Caste System Form of social stratification in which status is determined by one's family history and background cannot be changed
Apartheid Term for the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa from 1948-1991
Social Class System of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and prestige
Social Class is an ______ _______ Socioeconomic Status
Intersectionality Concept that identifies how different categories of inequality intersect
Upper Class Wealthiest people in a class system, 1% of U.S. population
Upper-Middle Class Professionals and managers, 14% of U.S. population
Middle Class "White-collar Workers," 30% of U.S. population
Working (Lower-Middle) Class "Blue-collar Workers," less likely to have college degrees, 30% of U.S. population
Working Poor Likely to work service jobs and seasonal employment, 13% of U.S. population
Under Class Part-time or unemployed, 12% of U.S. population
Karl Marx -Believed social classes would remain divided and inequality would grow -Believed there were two main social classes in capitalist societies 1. Capitalists 2. Workers
Capitalists Own means of production
Workers Sold their labor for wages
Max Weber Argued that class status was made of wealth, power, and prestige
Structural-Functionalist Theory Suggests that the system of stratification that has emerged is functional to society in many ways
Pierre Bourdieu Attempted to explain social reproduction
Social Reproduction Tendency for social class status to be passed down from one generation to the next
Cultural Capital Tastes, habits, expectations, skills, and knowledge that helps us to gain advantages in society
Symbolic Interactionists Examine the way we use status differences to categorize ourselves and others
Erving Goffman Said our clothing, speech, gestures, possessions, friends, and activities provide information about our socioeconomic status
Social Mobility Movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchical system of social classes
Closed System One in which there is a very little opportunity to move from one class to another
Open System One with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
Intergenerational Mobility Movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next
Intragenerational Mobility Movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual's lifetime
Horizontal Social Mobility Occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class
Vertical Social Mobility Movement between social classes, and depending on the direction, is often called either upward mobility or downward mobility
Structural Mobility Changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society
Absolute Deprivation Objective measure of poverty that is defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care
Relative Deprivation Relational measure of poverty based on the standards of living
Culture of Poverty Learned attitudes that can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate rather than attempt to improve their situation
Invisibility of Poverty Residential segregation, political disenfranchisement, and the use of law enforcement to control the homeless can make poverty invisible to many Americans
The American Dream Ideology that anyone can achieve material success if he or she works hard enough
Created by: aleahgoodson