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Diabetes Medication

Diabetes Meds Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
What are the three rapid-acting insulin? lispro(Humalog), aspart(NovoLog), glulisine(Apidra)
What is the action for rapid-acting insulin? DECREASES hepatic glucose production and INCREASES glucose movement into cells
What are signs and symptoms of Hypoglycemia? confusion, cool pale skin, nausea, diaphoresis, increase HR, anxious, hunger, tremors, irritability, weakness
You give these drugs to the patient on the 1st bite of each meal and also have side effects of flatulence, hypoglycemia if taken with insulin or sulfonylureas, abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors(starch blockers): acarbose(Precose) and miglitol(Glyset)
Which classification of drugs works by blocking reabsorption of glucose by the kidneys and have most common side effects of vaginal and penile yeast infections, UTI? SGLT2 "liflozin"
What drugs belongs to SGLT2? canagliflozin(Invokana), empagliflozin(Jardience), dapaliflozin(Farxiga)
Which drug causes SEVERE hypoglycemia within 3 hrs of injection when used WITH INSULIN? pramlinitide(Symlin)
What classification of drugs is pramlinitide(Symlin)? Amylin Analog
Which class of drugs has a side effect of not causing weight gain and a side effect of pancreatitis(associated with Januvia)? DPP-4 "liptins"
This class of drugs mimics action of gut hormones called incretins by stimulating insulin secretion; it also promotes feeling of satiety, slows gastric emptying and can affect absorption of oral meds GLP-1(Incretin mimetic)
Liraglutide has black box warning for _______ ______? Thyroid tumors
This drug has a black box warning that indicates "DO NOT use with HF", associated with increase risk for heart related deaths. TZD or Thiazolidinedione
These two class of drugs have similar side effects: weight gain and hypoglycemia; one is less likely to have these effects than the other because more rapidly absorbed and eleminated Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides
What are the two drugs listen under Sulfonylureas? glipizide(Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) and glimepiride (Amaryl)
This class of drugs lowers fasting BG by stimulating release of insulin from beta cells, enhances cell sensitivity to insulin Sulfonylureas
What class of insulins have clear vials? Rapid-Acting Insulin, Short-Acting Insulin, and Long-Acting Insulin
What can you teach the patient when using Humalog/NovoLog/Apidra? Give within 15 minutes of meal; teach proper injection technique and safe storage of insulin
Biguanide consist of what drug? Metformin
What does metformin do to the body? reduces liver production
Sulfonylureas stimulating release of _______ from beta cells insulin
glipizide and glimepiride are in what class of drugs? Sulfonylureas
What do you teach the patient who takes glipizide? administer it with 1st meal of day
Biguanide have side effects of deficiency on ___? B12 and folic acid
What interventions can you teach to patients who use Biguanides? hold the dose for patients who have renal dysfunction; assess BUN/Creatinine; and give with meal
Metformin have side effects one is Risk For? lactic acidosis
What are drugs under Meglinitides? repaglinide and nateglinide
Do not use these drugs to patients with HF rosiglitazone and pioglitazone
What do you need to asses patients who use TZD? assess for edema, S/s of HF and elevated liver enzymes, and hypoglycemia if taken with insulin
Actos can increase risk for? bladder cancer
GLP-1 mimics what? mimics action of incretins)gut hormones) by stimulating insulin secretion
sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin are under what class of drugs? DPP-4
this drug has a black box warning for thyroid tumors? Liraglutide
What interventions do you need to teach the patient who takes GLP-1 drugs? Extended release given once weekly; can affect absorption of oral meds; SQ injection
Give 4 drugs under GLP-1 liraglutide, dulglutide, albiglutide, exenatide
What is the action of GLP-1? promotes feeling of satiety, stimulating insulin secretion
Side effects of taking GLP-1 are? acute pancreatitis and kidney problems, nausea, and vomiting
What are side effects of DPP-4? pancreatitis, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, URI, headache, nausea, diarrhea
DPP-4 action is what? decrease glucagon secretion and increase insulin resistance
SGLT2 have the most common side effects which is vaginal and penile yeast infections, UTI
Amylin Analog/Symlin has a black box warning of? severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia within 3hrs of injections
Symlin control what? controls after meal glucose
what drugs can help with diabetic neuropathy? duloxetine, pregabalin, and gabapentin
pregabalin and gabapentin are taken? TID
duloxetine is taken by and when? PO and daily
what is the first-line therapy for severe hypoglycemia in DM? glucagon
what do you need to assess patient who was just given glucagon? hypoglycemia; LOC; nausea and vomiting after administration; serum glucose for 3-4 hrs after use
What interventions are there for glucagon treatment? after pt. responds will need small meal if nausea gone
Created by: dmanuel3332