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# Science Study Guide

### Concepts: Eureka Slide Show; pgs 5 + 10-23

Comparing Speeds Understand how to compare two speeds given - 1.36 m/s versus 0.76 m/s. 1.36 m/s is faster because it is traveling a greater distance in the same amount of time. - You may have to illustrate this concept on a number line.
Speed and Velocity (Blank) defines direction, usually using a larger unit of measure to measure distance. (Blank) calculates ONLY speed, and not direction.
Net Force: Forces that work AGAINST each other These types of forces can: 1. Balance each other - Happens when the strengths are equal - Balanced forces = no movement 2. One force can overpower another - The object moves in the direction of which the stronger force is pushing or pulling - net force
Net Force: Forces that work WITH each other These types of forces work together in the SAME direction - The force as a whole becomes greater.
Resultants/How to find the net force when forces are working AGAINST or WITH each other Against each other - Must subtract forces to find net force, and define the direction in which the force is stronger With each other - Must add the forces to find net force, and define the direction in which the force is going or moving
How do you show a force (on a graph)? Vector: Starts with a dot showing where the force begins - Length of arrow shows the strength of the force - The arrow shows the direction of the force moving - Each box represents a measurement, usually newtons, but usually specified in problem
Force and Motion: Common Knowledge Speed and acceleration describe motion - A force is a push or pull used especially with objects - Motion is not always a result of force - When 2 forces are working against each other w/ the same amount of force, there is no motion.
Force and Motion: Net force A net force is the total of all the forces being applied added together - Size and direction of an arrow when measuring net force depends on the amount of force being applied and the direction it is going
Force and Motion: Negative Numbers Opposing forces can be measured using negative + positive numbers - Negatives are used when the negative forces point in the opposite direction of the positive force - Ex) ---> is 5 N and this arrow: <---- is 3 N. The 3 N is negative b/c 5 MINUS 3 is 2
Force and Motion: Conclusion Net force calculations need the force and direction - An object's motion is determined by the net force
True or False: Balanced forces cause a change in motion False: When there is a balanced force, it is equal on both sides - Ex) 50 N, 50 N - If the forces are pulling against each other, the resultant would be 0 N to no direction.
True or False: Unbalanced forces cause a change in motion True: When there is an unbalanced force, it is not equal on both sides - Ex) 50 N, 40 N - If the forces are pulling against each other, the resultant will be 10 N to either the right or left, based where the stronger force is.
Gizmos Activity: Common Knowledge Your weight is the pull of gravity on your body - Your mass is the amount of matter, or "stuff", in your body.
Mass and Weight: Common Knowledge Gravity is a force that pulls objects together - Everything is affected by gravity - Gravity depends on two things: Mass and distance - People stay on Earth because the gravitational force on Earth is MUCH stronger than the gravitational force in humans
Mass and Weight: Mass and Distance Objects with more mass exert more gravitational pull - Objects with a closer distance exert more gravitational force
Mass and Weight: Mass vs. Weight: Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object - Units: grams/kilograms - DOESN'T CHANGE WITH LOCATION - Measured on a balance scale (the scale with one pan in Gizmos)
Mass and Weight: Mass vs. Weight: Weight A measurement of the force of gravity - Units: Newtons (N) - DOES CHANGE WITH LOCATION - Measured with a spring scale (the scale with two pans in Gizmos)
Gravity A force that pulls objects together - The larger the mass, the more (BLANK) force. The closer the objects, the more (BLANK) force. This force depends on two things: mass and distance.
What is the relationship between the following? The Universe, the Milky Way, the Solar System, the Earth, and the Moon Within the universe, is the Milky Way, one of the quadrillion existing. In the Milky Way is our solar system. In our solar system, planets, Earth, exists. Earth has one moon only. The Earth orbits the sun, as does the other planets in our Solar System.
What is the shape of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun? An ellipse (elliptical)
Identify 6 ways the planets differ from each other. Atmosphere - Presence of life - Temperature/weather/climate - Size - Density - Distance from the sun
Name and describe the 2 movements that the Earth makes. How long does it take to complete each movement? Rotation: The Earth spins on its axis. It takes 24 hours to complete - Revolution: The Earth follows its orbit around the Sun. It takes 365 days, or a year, to complete. - Similarities: Both move in a counterclockwise direction
Other facts you may need to know Forces working at an angle affect each other - Weight and mass are not the same - Gravity is one of the most important forces in the universe to our current knowledge
Created by: mdavidson23