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8- Quarter 1 Science

8th grade quarter 1 study guide (Smith)

QuestionAnswer
Element a substance consisting of a single type of atom
Compound a chemical substance formed when two or more different elements bond in a specific proportion -elements loose their chemical individual properties -chemical bonds are the result of the sharing/exchanging of electrons between atoms
Molecule a group of two or more atoms (same or different) bonded together, resulting in the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound
Proton -positively charged subatomic particle; located in the nucleus -included in the atom's mass (1 proton=1 amu- atomic mass unit) -# of protons = atomic # and determines the identity of an element
Neutron -no electrical charge; located in the nucleus -included in the atom's mass (1 neutron = 1 amu)
Electron -negatively charged subatomic particle; located in the electron cloud on orbitals/rings/shells outside the nucleus -not included in the atom's mass (1 e = 1/2,000 amu) -In a neutral atom, there is an = amount of electrons + protons
Structure the arrangement and form of an atom is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons (subatomic particles); the nucleus at the center contains protons + neutrons; an electron cloud surrounds nucleus & contains electrons (rings are known as orbitals/shells)
Atoms -basic building blocks of all matter; basic unit of a chemical element; consists of 3 basic parts: protons, neutrons, and electrons (subatomic particles)
States of Matter *aka phases* describes a physical property (solid, liquid, or gas); all matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) which are in constant motion: particles vibrating and move around less/more if the matter is cooled/heated
Solid has a definite shape and a definite volume; particles are tightly packed, and vibrate in a fixed position
Liquid has no definite shape, but has a definite volume; takes shape of its containers; particles are tightly packed but far enough to slide over one another (still touching)
Gas has no definite shape and no definite volume; takes shape of its containers; particles are far apart and moving fast & freely
Isotopes variant forms of a particular chemical element that contain the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons in an atom than all other forms of that element (same atomic #, different atomic mass)
Draw models showing atomic motions for solids, liquids, and gases SOLIDS: -tightly packed, barely moving, taking up entire box LIQUIDS: -still touching/bonded, enough space to slip past each other, more atomic motion, taking up entire box GASES: -spread far apart, moving fast & freely
Be able to label a phase change graph showing the states of matter and the terminology used to describe each phase change temp I+ thermal/heat energy _; solid > melting > liquid > evaporation > gas; gas < condensation < liquid < freezing < solid; sublimation (solid to gas)
Protons = 34 Electrons = Neutrons = Atomic # = Atomic Mass = 72 Protons = 34 Electrons = 34 Neutrons = 38 Atomic # = 34 Atomic Mass = 72
Protons = 7 Electrons = 6 Neutrons = Atomic # = Atomic Mass = Protons = 7 Electrons = 6 Neutrons = 4 Atomic # = 7 Atomic Mass = 11
Atomic # = 79 Atomic mass = 196.967 How many neutrons are there? 118
Be able to describe the structure of an atom and draw a detailed model. The structure of an atom contains a nucleus in the center consisting of protons and neutrons, and the electrons vibrate/move around on orbitals/rings/shells in the electron cloud around the nucleus
Explain what a compound is and how to identify one by looking at a chemical formula. -explain a compound & chemical formula -there has to be 2 or more different element symbols bonded together in a chemical formula to have a compound b/c there is at least 1 atom in each element, so the different atoms make up a compound
Given a chemical formula, draw a model of it, labeling each element. (Understand subscripts and coefficients) 2BaF2 = Ba-F-F Ba-F-F
When given a problem, be able to explain each step of the engineering design process you would complete in order to solve that problem. Constraints vs Criteria? How do you choose the best design? How do you choose the way you will communicate your design? 1. Think of a problem you want to solve (why do we want this?); 2. research--criteria: things the object has to do to be successful (requirements), constraints: limitations on the design (restrictions), usually things like $, time, material available, etc
Continued...3 When given a problem, be able to explain each step of the engineering design process you would complete in order to solve that problem. How do you choose the best design? How do you choose the way you will communicate your design? 3 & 4. design and develop the solutions- come up with 2-3 brainstorming ideas and draw out the initial ideas. Narrow it down to one main idea and draw a more complex diagram of your prototype
Continued...5/6 When given a problem, be able to explain each step of the engineering design process you would complete in order to solve that problem. How do you choose the best design? How do you choose the way you will communicate your design? 5 & 6. Build & test prototype-- build prototype according to your complex diagram and requirements, and test it 2-3 times to make sure it works and take detailed notes/ data 7. Evaluate design-- analyze data + match rqmnts to see if you need to redesign
Continued...8 When given a problem, be able to explain each step of the engineering design process you would complete in order to solve that problem. How do you choose the best design? How do you choose the way you will communicate your design? 8. Communicate your results-- share your design solutions with others appropriately according to the audience depending on the nature of your design; show how the project can apply to life and the real world
real world examples of isotopes --certain isotopes aren't stable and emit radiation; can be dangerous, but safety measures can be taken to benefit society Ex: Americium-241 is used in smoke detectors, and Cobalt-20 is used with food irradiation and sterilizing medical equipment
Be able to draw models of isotopes. Hydrogen-1 (1 proton); hydrogen-2 (1 p-1 n); hydrogen-3 (1 p-2 n)
Created by: spuent