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Genetics

Mendel, Alleles, Probability, Punnett Squares, DNA

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring.
G. Mendel The father of genetics.
Trait A distinguishing characteristic belonging to an organism.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity.
Pollination When pollen reaches the pistil of a flower.
Self-Pollinate When pollen from a flower lands on the pistil of the same flower.
Cross-Pollinate When pollen from a flower lands on the pistil of a different flower.
Purebred An organism that after many generations has the same form of the same trait (not homozygous).
P Generation The starting point of a genetic experiment, often have opposite traits.
F1 Generation The resulting generation from the P generation, all are hybrids.
Gene The "factors" that control a trait.
Allele Different form of a gene.
Dominant The trait that always shows up when the allele is present.
Recessive The trait that is hidden or masked when the dominant allele is present.
Hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait (not heterozygous).
Probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Punnett Square A tool that helps us see the probability within genetics.
Genotype The genetic makeup, or alleles in an organism.
Phenotype The physical appearance, or visible traits in an organism.
Homozygous Having identical alleles (not purebred).
Heterozygous Having different alleles (not hybrid).
Watson and Crick The men who discovered the shape of DNA.
R. Franklin The woman who discovered the shape of DNA.
Nitrogen Bases The "rungs" of the DNA ladder, ATCG; contains nitrogen and other elements.
Protein Long chain molecules made of amino acids
Adenine This nitrogen base pairs with thymine in DNA.
Thymine This nitrogen base pairs with adenine in DNA.
Cytosine This nitrogen base pairs with guanine in DNA.
Guanine This nitrogen base pairs with cytosine in DNA.
Sex Chromosome The 23rd pair of chromosomes, these determine the sex of the baby.
XX The sex chromosomes of a female.
XY The sex chromosomes of a male.
Genetic Disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes in chromosomes.
Selective Breeding Selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of the next generation.
Cloning Producing an offspring with desired traits, it has the exact same genes as the organism from which it was produced.
Genetic Engineering A powerful technique for producing organisms with desired traits by manipulating DNA.
Inherited Trait Traits that are carried by genes, they are passed down from parent to offspring.
Acquired Trait Traits that are not carried by genes, they are affected by the environment.
Genome All of an organism's DNA.
Created by: kmsew