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Plant Reproduction

Biology of Managed Ecosystems

Why are plants important? They provide oxygen, food, pharmaceuticals, fibre, fuel, quality of life.
When writing the taxonomy of an organism in a species level, do you use italics? Yes.
What is a species? Group of individuals that when they interbreed they produce viable and fertile offspring without artificial intervention.
What is a subspecies? Group of individuals that when they interbreed they produce fertile offspring, but are not found in nature (due to geography or other barriers)
What is a cultivar? A recognized subpopulation cultivated by humans.
What is intergeneric hybrids? Fertile progeny involving two genera, which requires intervention (embryo resuce, bridge crossing, chromosome doubling, cell fusion)
How do you indicate an intergeneric hybrid? Combined name with X to indicate cross. (ex. Heuchera x Tiarella)
What is an angiosperm? Flowering vascular plant that have covered seeds (seeds surrounded by ovule, like an apple).
What is a gymnosperm? Plants that have naked seeds, aka conifers. The seeds form in a cone.
What are the 3 unique features of an angiosperm? The 3 F's: Flowers, double Fertilization, Fruit
What are the alternate generations of angiosperms? Haploid and diploid generation.
Which generation does angiosperms rely on to survive? (generally) Diploid generation.
What is another name for diploid generation? Sporophyte generation.
Describe the sporophyte generation. It is the diploid multi-cellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga. It develops from the zygote produced when a haploid egg cell is fertilized by a haploid sperm and each sporophyte cell has a double set of chromosomes, one set from each parent.
What is another name for haploid generation? Gametophyte generation.
Describe the gametophyte generation. The gamete-producing and usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from which the sporophyte arises
What are "higher" plants? Angiosperms and gymnosperms.
What is the "higher" plants predominant generation? The sporophyte generation (diploid).
What are "lower" plants? Mosses.
What is the "lower" plants predominant generation? The gametophyte generation (haploid).
Why are quotation marks used when addressing "higher" plants. According to evolution, plants that evolved last are the higher plants. That does not make them better than the lower plants. Instead, the lower plants are more resistant than the higher plants to many things in the ecosystem, as they lived longer.
What is the purpose of a flower? It is the reproductive organ that: -produces gametes (ovule + pollen = egg + sperm) - attracts gametes (pollen) - nourishes embryos - develops seeds and fruit
What is the purpose of a seed? It protects the embryo and nutrient source by a protective coat.
What is the purpose of a fruit? It contains the seeds, developed from the ovary.
What four organs are found in a flower? 1. Sepal 2. Petal 3. Stamen 4. Carpel
What is a sepal? Sterile, modified leaf.
What is a stamen? Organ that includes the anther and filament, needed for reproduction.
What is a carpel? Organ that includes the stigma, style, and ovary.
What is a petal? Sterile, modified leaf.
What is a stigma? The top of a style that has a sticky surface to catch pollen grains.
What is a style? The long tube that attaches to the ovary to transport the pollen to the ovary.
What is an ovary? The organ that contains the fertilized embryo by pollen to later develop into a fruit with the embryo as seeds.
What is an anther? The organ that releases pollen.
What is a filament? A long tube that transports pollen to the anther to release pollen.
Why do angiosperms make flowers? To produce seeds and fruit. The fruit will protect and nourish the seeds.
Are tomatoes fruit? Yes. And so are many "vegetables". Vegetables are the greenery of a plant, like lettuce. Fruit are the reproductive part of the plant, like nuts, tomatoes, and legumes.
What are inflorescence angiosperm flowers? Clusters of flowers, like wild carrot or Queen Anne's Lace.
What are complete angiosperm flowers? Flowers that contains all 4 floral organs. For example: apple.
What are incomplete angiosperm flowers? Flowers that lack one or more organs like stamens or carpels. For example, zucchini and willow. Both have male and female flowers (not 2 in 1).
Where are the flowers in corn? The ears are the female flower, with the silks as the stigma. Each silk is attached to an ovule. The tassel is the male flower.
Created by: lia00