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Study Guide #1

TermDefinition
Monomer a single-subunit of macromolecule
Polymer multiple monomers repeated creating large molecules; ex: polypeptide
DNA/RNA deoxyribonucleic acid: thymine and a double helix; ribonucleic acid: uracil and a single helix
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
Cellular Structure the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms; ex: Chromosome, Nucleotide
Hydroxyl Group the entity with the formula: OH
Carboxyl Group having a carbonyl and hydroxyl group both linked to a carbon atom; formula: C + OH; ex: Carbohydrates
Amino Group functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom attached by single bonds to hydrogen atoms; formula: 2H + N
Phosphate Group a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms, but it has many important roles; formula: P + 4O
Lipids any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; ex: natural oils, waxes, and steroids
Saturated Fat a type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds
Trans Fat an unsaturated fatty acid of a type occurring in margarines and manufactured cooking oils as a result of the hydrogenation process, having a trans arrangement of the carbon atoms adjacent to its double bonds
Carbohydrates a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose; 2H + O
Created by: Elijher