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Grade 9 Geography

Interaction in the Physical Environment

What are the 3 main classifications of rocks? Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentarty
Describe the characteristics of Igneous Rock *Fire Rocks (formed by the cooling of magma below earth's surface) Some have holes No layering fairly low density
Describe the characteristics of Metamorphic Rock Have morphed from another type of rock due to heat and pressure Very dense No holes
Describe the characteristics of Sedimentary Rock Has layering Very few minerals
Where in Canada can you find Igneous Rock and how was it formed? The Canadian Shield -The Canadian shield was created by a volcanic eruption producing igneous rock
Where in Canada can you find Metamorphic Rock and how was it formed? A bit in the Western Cordillara- formed in the Earth, found in plate boundaries
Where in Canada can you find Sedimentary Rock and how was it formed? The Appalachians- the Canadian Shield eroded and sediments flowed into the ocean and are compressed, forming sedimentary rock, forces underneath the earth pushed up creating The Appalachian Mountains (Paleozoic Era)
Draw the Rock Cycle- Include all arrows and labels
What are the 4 Geologic Eras Precambrian Era Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era
How did Canada change during the Precambrian Era? Started 4600 Million years ago Ended 570 Million years ago Precambrian shields such as The Canadian Shield are formed.
How did Canada change during the Paleozoic Era? Started 570 Million years ago Ended 245 Million years ago Large parts of North America are covered by shallow seas. Appalachians formed
How did Canada change during the Mesozoic Era? Started 245 Million years ago Ended 66 Million years ago Formation of Rocky Mountains begins Innuitian Mountains formed Shallow seas inn the interior of North America at various times
How did Canada change during the Canozoic Era? Started 66 Million years ago Ice sheets cover much of North America Continents take on their present shape Formation of Rocky Mountains completed
Who came up with the theory of Continental Drift? Physicist Alfred Wegener in 1924
What was the 1st proof he used to prove his theory? SHAPE OF THE COASTLINES: Deep ocean maps indicate that continental shelves fit very close together- closer that continents due to less erosion under water. Continents are resting on moving plates- new name -Techtonic Plates
What was the 2nd proof he used to prove his theory? MID-OCEANIC RIDGES: Ridges that are like mountain ranges found in the middle of each ocean and run parallel to coastlines- believe to be the location where the continental plates originally split apart
What was the 3rd proof he used to prove his theory? FOSSIL EVIDENCE: Similar fossils found on all continents- this means that the continents must have been joined in order to share a common species. Today each continent has it's own set of distinct animals based on conditions of the continent
What was the 4th proof he used to prove his theory? GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS: Similar land forms are found on adjacent continents
Name and label Canada's 7 landform regions on the map. Pick 1 landform region and explain how it is significant to Canada Western Cordillera Interior Plains of Canada Appalachian Mountains St. Lawrence-Great Lakes Lowlands Canadian Shield Hudson Bay- Arctic Lowlands Innuitian Mountains
Name and draw a picture to illustrate 3 types of precipitation found in Canada. Add to the map at the bottom of the page where each type of precipitation is located OROGRAPHIC RELIEF CONVECTIONAL: only 1 that produces hail FRONTAL/CYCLONIC: most common
What does the acronym LOWERN stand for? L-Latitude- O-Ocean Currents W-Wind Patterns and Air Masses E-Elevation R- Relief N-Nearness to Water
Describe how latitude affects climate? Areas close to the equator experience a warmer climate than areas further away from the equator because of more direct sun rays. The closer you get to the poles the less precipitation you get since cooler air holds less moisture.
Describe how Ocean Currents affect climate? The climate (temperature & precipitation) of cities along a coastline is directly affected by the ocean currents moving along the coast (moderating affect) They may become cooler or warmer and have more precipitation.
Describe how Wind Patterns & Air Masses affect climate? When they move off large bodies of water onto land they moderate temps when they move off large land areas they bring extreme temps from ocean areas onto land they bring moisture.from land area they bring drier conditions. Canada has Westerly winds
Describe how Elevation affect climate? It is much colder at the top of a mountain than it is at the base. Temperature drops 1.2C for every 200m of elevation. you get more precipitation the higher up you are.
Describe how Relief affects climate? They block winds & air masses so temperatures one side to the other can be quite different (moderate Windward Extreme- continental side) Windward areas(facing the ocean)are wet-moist winds rise, cool & give up their moisture Leeward-dry (rain shadow)
Describe how Nearness to Water affect climate? Temp moderated (cooler summers/warmer winters) by ocean especially when winds move inland. Precipitation is higher next to oceans (esp when winds move inland onto mountains. Lower when areas are located far inland (esp when behind mountains)
How have plants and animals evolved over the 4 eras? Precambrian-First multi-celled organisms. First single-celled organisms. Paleozoic- Age of amphibians & fish. First insects. Large swamp-coal formed from this vegetation. First plants & animals appear on land
Plant/animal evolution continued Mesozoic-Age of reptiles, such as dinosaurs. First flowering plants. First birds and mammals. Cenozoic- Human beings develop. Age of mammals. Modern forms of life evolve
Be able to read and understand a climate graph, practice identifying where different types of graphs are located around Canada. Be able to calculate the 3 different calculations for climate graphs
What is the definition of Weather? Day to day characteristics of Atmospheric conditions. Weather covers smalls areas of earth (cities, regions etc.)
What is the definition of Climate? A pattern of Atmospheric conditions (temperature and precipitation) data collected and studied over a long period of time- 100+ years. Farmers were first climatologists. Farmers Almanac
What are the types of Atmospheric Conditions Temperature (C) Air pressure (high/low) Wind (speed/direction) Humidity (% of moisture in air) Precipitation (3 forms: Rain, Snow & Hail) Cloud Cover (eg, fog)
How do Continents Move? Upper mantel is 10-15% liquid(asthenosphere)creating a plastic like layer allowing rock layers beneath the crust to flow like a liquid.
How do Continents Move cont Due to uneven heating convection currents are created & allow the rock to flow from hot to cooler regions.The crust of the Earth(broken into plates)flow with it
What are some Natural Phenomena that shaped Canada Boreal Forest Niagara Falls Niagara Escarpment/ Toronto Drumlins Great Lakes Circular Lake in Quebec Rocky Mountains (Techtonic Plates) Hopewell New Brunswick (Tides)
How do you know if it is Maritime Climate? If the temperature range is low (less than <25ºC) and annual precipitation is high (more than > 1000mm) it is said to be a Maritime Climate
How do you know if it is a Continental Climate If the temperature range is high (more than . 25ºC) and the annual precipitation is low (less than < 1000mm) then it is said to be a Continental Climate
Created by: cianieri



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