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Hepatitis

QuestionAnswer
Hepatitis D is a superinfection of: Hepatitis B
If you are immunized against Hepatitis B, you cant get: Hepatitis D
Hepatitis E is similar to: Hepatitis A, but is not seen much in the US
Hepatitis F is a variant of: Hepatitis B
Hepatitis that is primarily spread through blood transfusion is: Hepatitis C
Each form of hepatitis is a separat and distinct: virus
There is not any vaccine for: Hepatitis C
Inflammation of the liver andit is usually caused by an attacking virus. This inflammation kills healthy liver cells. Hepatitis
In what forms of hepatitis, does cell death lead to scar tissue called cirrhosis? Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C
What hepatitis birus can cause a serious infection? Hepatitis B
How can Hepatitis B be transmitted? Coming into contact with infected body fluids, including blood, vaginal secretions, seminal fluid and rarely saliva.
How is the Hepatitis C virus transmitted? By contact with infected blood.
What can HCV and HBV infections lead to? Cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death.
Most people who become infected with form of hepatitis recover completely. Hepatitis A
Why are shellfish a particular risk for HAV? Because shellfish, gothe oysters, muccles and clams are all filter feeders. The filter the wate and acutlly filter and concentrate the HAV within the shellfish itself. You can have a concentration that is 10-15x high within the shellfish.
How can he HAV be killed? By boiling or cooking food to 85 degrees celcius for one minute.
What are symptoms of HAV? Fever, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting and a cardinal symptom is jaundice, dark skin and fatigue.
How is HAV diagnosed? By a simple blood test for the HAV antibody.
There are 2 new vaccines for protection against HAV, what are they? Gamma Globulin and Havrix
HBV is much more virulent than: HIV
HAV vaccine can be given: Before exposure and provides long-term immunity.
When is Immuno-glogulin given? It is give to provide protection after exposure to a person with HAV.
What kind of Hepatitis may be transmitted through sexual contact, IV drug use, mother to newborn, or by household members living with an infected person, healthcare workers, hemodialysis, and rarely people who receive blood transfusions are at risk? Hepatitis C
A widespread , dangerous virus that is contracted easily and is found in blood or othe body fluids contaminated with the blood. HBV
HBV can be transmitted through the skin by way of: cuts, scrapes or needle sticks
HBV is transmitted very effectively both by: IV drug use and sexually
Symptoms of HBV Jaundice, complaints of anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
What is perinatal Hepatitis B? Transmission of the HBV from mother to infant.
Patient wo have HBV related chronic-active hepatitis and cirrhosis have a higher risk of: Developing primary liver cancer.
After transplantation, two main problems arise int he patient who has HBV. What are they? Rapid reoccurrence of the virus in the blood after transplantation and when this occurs, there is very rapid progression of liver disease in the transplanted liver.
Both hepatitis B and C can go into: Chronic liver disease, they can go into cirrhosis and they have a higher risk of liver cancer.
HAV is transmitted by the: fecal/oral route
HBV is transmitted by: infected blood and other body fluids
People at risk for contracting HCV are: IV drug users, healthcare workers, hemodialysis patients, and rarely people who receive blood transfusions.
The most effective transmission of HCV is through: Direct percutaneous exposures to infectious blood, such as through sharing of contaminated needles and other equipment among injection drug users and transfusions and transplants from infectious donors.
The only approved therapeutic drug for treatment of HCV is: Recombinant interferon alpha 2b, konow under the brand name of Intron A.
For patients who respond to therapy with interferon, how long do we continue therapy? We do a full six month befoe we stop therapy.
What is the final option for end stage HCV? Liver transplant.
What does pre-icteric mean? It means before they have jaundice.
What does icteric mean? It is when the patient is actually glowing yellow. They will have jaundice, pruritis, dark urine, and urine bilirubin.
One of the overriding symptoms of icteic is: Fatigue. This and flu like symptoms.
What is Post icteric? It is when they are starting to recover.
How does a post icteic patient feel? They will have malaise, yucky feeling, and very easily fatigued.
How do we tell what kind of hepatitis a patient has? By looking at their blood.
With HBV the very first thing that appearsin the blood is the: HBV surface antigen. HBsAg
What is the HBV surface antigen? It is the outer portion of the virus in the blood. It is present about 4-12 weeks after infection and is the earliest indicator of HBV.
What is the Core Antigen? It it the inner poetion of the virus. It is seen in the blood about 6-14 weeks after infection.
What is Past Infection or Anti HBcAg? These are antibodies to the core antigen and indicate past infection.
What is HBeAg - Infectivity? You only see this when the virus is rapidly reproducing in the blood. If you see the Hepatitis sub-e,it means they are most contageious at thea t point because they virus is rapidly reproducing.
What does the Hepatitis C - Anti -HCV tell us? The only thing we can tell with HCV is that a person has been exposed to it when we wee antibodies to the HCV.
HCV is 5x more prevalent in the world than: HIV
In the US the fastest growing cancer right now is: Hepatocellular cander.
What percentage of persons with HCV will develop cirrhosis of the liver? 85%
Why is HCV with alcoholic liver disease the leading cause of liver transplants? Because alcohol accelerates the progression of the disease.
Excessive body piercing or tattoing is a frisk factor for what two types of Hepatitis? Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C
Why is intranasal cocaine use a risk factor for HCV? Because there could be blood in the cocaine or on the object they roll to snort it.
What is the primary goal fo preventio for hepatitis? Preventing the spreadn and education.
For HAV, what do we do to promote preventing the spread of the virus? Handwashing, vaccination after age 2, sanitation, avoid uncooked shellfish, Immune Globulin, wash uncooked fruit and vegetables
For HBV what do we do to promote preventing the spread of the virus? Hepatitis B vaccine, safe sex, sterile insturments for piercing, tattoos and manicures. Do Not share razors, nail clippers and toothbrushes. PPE, and public education.
For HCV what do we do to promote preventing the spread of the virus? Decrease risk factors, provide public education. Promote needle exchange programs and anything that will help to reduce the 50%contraction through IV use.
What drug is used for the treatment of HBV or HCV? Interferon