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Unit 2:CellStructure

Life Science - Unit 2: Cell Structure

TermDefinition
Active Transport The movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to high concentration. This DOES require the use of energy.
Cell Membrane An outer boundary of protection for the organelles within a cell. All cells have a cell membrane.
Chloroplast Chloroplast is green in color and is involved with capturing and storing energy for plant cells.
Cilia Tiny hair like structures on the outside of some cells. These are short and there are many of them.
Cytology The study of cells.
Cytoplasm The thick fluid inside the cell membrane where the organelles are located.
Diffusion The movement of molecules by Passive Transport from and are of high to low concentration.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Directs the assembling of proteins.
Flagaella Tiny hair like structures on the outside of some cells. These are long and there are only a few of them.
Fluid Mosaic Model A basic membrane structure that is composed of a double layer of lipids and embedded with protein molecules.
Golgi Apparatus Processes, packages, and sends molecules where they need to go.
Hydrophobic In a cell membrane the lipids hydrophobic end does not like water so it points toward the interior of the cell membrane (away from the water).
Hydrophilic In a cell membrane the lipids hydrophilic end like water so it points toward the outer part of the cell membrane (closer to the water).
Lysosome Beaks down waste and digests old cell parts.
Mitochondria Breaks down sugar into usable energy.
Nucleus This is called the control center of the cell which contains DNA (a genetic material of the cell).
Organelles Different parts of the cell that perform many of the functions needed to keep the cell alive.
Osmosis The passive transport of water molecules from an area of high to low concentration.
Passive Transport The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This does NOT require the use of energy.
Photosynthesis A process where chloroplasts use energy from the sun to make sugar.
Ribosomes The place where proteins are made.
Vacuole This is where the cell stores food, water, and waste.
What does a selectively permeable membrane allow to pass through it? It allows only certain molecules to pass through it.
How are osmosis and diffusion the same.? They both involve passive transport - moving molecules from an area of high to low concentration.
How are osmosis and diffusion different? Osmosis is the movement of water molecules while diffusion is the movement of other molecules.
How are active and passive transport similar? The both are involved in diffusion.
How are active and passive transport different? Active transport requires energy and moves molecules from an area of low to high concentration. Passive transport does not require the use of energy and moves molecules from an area of high to low concentration.
How are plant and animal cells different? Plant cells have a cell wall, one large vacuole, and chloroplast when animal cells do not. Animal cells have lysosomes and many small vacuoles when plant cells do not.
Why is the compound microscope called "compound"? Because it uses two sets of lenses.
What two organelles help the cell to move? Cilia and Flagella
Where is the genetic material of a cell located? In the nucleus - the control center of the cell.
What is the difference between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell? Eukaryotic cells have genetic materials that are surrounded by a membrane. Eukaryotic cells also have a nucleus and their organelles are surrounded by a membrane.
What are eukaryotic cells? Name 3. They have a true nucleus and their genetic material is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. They also contain most organelles. Examples include: algae, plant cells, animal cells, and human cells.
What are prokaryotic cells? Name 1. Their genetic material is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. An example is bacteria.
What is turgor pressure? It is the abundance of water inside a cell that has a rigid cell wall. You can tell if a plant has high turgor pressure if the leaves and stems are crisp and stiff. If a plant has low turgor pressure the leaves and stems will be limp and wilted.
What is a fluid mosaic model made of? They are made of proteins and lipids = proteins embedded in a lipid bi-layer.
What is the outer boundary of the cell called? cell membrane
Created by: JesicaWeatherman