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Cellular Energetics

Cell Energy transfer

ATP Adenosine Tri Phosphate: Energy currency of cell Fully charged energy
ADP Adenosine Di Phosphate - Discharged energy molecule
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can be transformed and transferred from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy conversion is inefficient and energy lost as heat disperses and lost.
Entropy Measure of energy lost as heat .
Potential Energy Energy Available to do work
Kinetic Energy Energy at Work
Anabolic Reaction Reactions that forms a bond; make a new molecule
Catabolic Reaction Reactions that breaks a bond; breaks a molecule
Endergonic Reaction Reactions that requires energy - anabolic reactions
Exergonic Reactions Reaction that releases energy - Catabolic reactions
Metabolism Sum total of all reactions in a body
Energy Capacity to do work
Enzyme Protein molecule that catalyzes a reaction and make it happen faster.
Activation Energy Energy needed to start a reaction
Substrate Molecules that take part in a reaction ( associated with enzyme)
Active Site Region on an enzyme that binds to the substrate
Competititve Inhibition Inhibitor binds to the active site and prevents the enzyme from catalyzing the reaction
Non-competitive inhibition Inhibitor changes the active site of the enzyme making it unavailable to catalyze the reaction
Oxidation reaction Reaction where a reactant loses electron .
Reduction Reaction REaction where a reactant gains an electron.
Redox Reaction Coupled reaction where one reactant loses electron and another gains an electron.
Isotonic Solution Solute concentration is the same inside and outside of membrane
Hypertonic Solution Solute concentration is high in the solution compared to the solute concentration in the cell - water will move out of the cell.
Hypotonic Solution Solute Concentration is low in the solution compared to the solute concentration in the cell - water will move in to the cell
Passive transport No energy required to move particles across a membrane , movement happens along with the concentration gradient high -. Low
Active Transport Energy required to move particles across membrane; movement happens against the concentration gradient -low-> High
Phagocytosis Vesicles moving into the cell with large solid substance - cell eating.
Pinocytosis Vesicles moving into the cell with fluids - cell drinking
Exocytosis Movement of Vesicle out of cell
Endocytosis Movement of Vesicle into the cell
Created by: lkrishnan