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Biology 108

Properties of Life Order and structure, energy processes, reproduction, growth and development, response to environment, homeostasis, evolution
Adaptation A feature common in a population because it is advantageous, a process of natural selection
Natural Selection Process by which organisms with favourable traits are more likely to survive to reproduce.
Evolution Descent with modification from small scale (change in gene frequency between 2 generations) to large scale (descent of different species from common ancestor)*speciation
Tree of Life
Way of organizing relationships between species, based off a universal common ancestor and branching off from there.
Homology Similarities in traits due to a common ancestor, don't need to have the same function, but has to have a similar structure
Analogy Similarities in traits due to environment, may have the same function, but doesn't have the same structure
Old approach to phylogeny Looking at the morphology (bone structure)
New approach to phylogeny Look at DNA and genetic similarities
Outgroup An organism that does not belong to the group whose evolutionary relationships are being investigated
Maximum Parsimony The rule which says the tree with the least amount of assumptions or changes is most likely the most correct one
Apomorphy A character trait that evolved from a pre-existing characteristic
Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms based on similarities.
Taxonomic Structure Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Systematics Organization of organisms based on evolutionary relationships. Approaches: Phenetics (similar traits), Cladistics (common ancestor), Synthetic (combination of both)
Phenetics Based on overall character similarities, impartial, but can lead to more broken-up trees. Usually faster.
Cladistics Based on evolutionary relationships. All species that share a common ancestor are part of a group.
Monophyletic group A taxon in which all species share a common ancestor
Polyphyletic group Derivation from 2 or more ancestral sources
Paraphyletic group A taxon in which all share a common ancestor but not all species are used
Synthetics Based on evolutionary similarities and genetic differences. Can be subjective because analogous traits are discarded.
Eukaryotes Most are simgle-celled and called Protists. Has organelles in cytoplasm. DNA and cytoplasm are separated by nucleus.
Protists Has a flexible cell surface, dynamic flow of membrane (endo/exocytosis), differentiated cell surface (microtubules, microfilaments, flagella)
Primary Endosymbiosis The theory that Eukaryotes evolved from the union between a cyanobacteria and an archea. The cyanobacteria became mitochondria.
Protist Locomoty
Unikonta Amoebozoa, Plasmodial Slime Mold, Opisthokonta
Excavata Euglenozoanes, Diplomonads/Parabasalids, Kinetoplastidia
Archaeplastida Red Algae, Glaucophytes, Green Algae
Chromalveolates Alveolata (ciliates, dinoflagellates, apicomplexans), Stramenopiles (diatoms, golden algae, brown algae, oomycetes)
Rhizaria Radiolarians, Foraminifera
Amoebozoa Free-living. Move through pseudopodea and eat through phagocytosis
Opisthokonta Ancestors of animals and fungi. Have 1 flagellum with microvilli. Non-motile
Euglenozoans Have a flagella with a crystalline rod inside it
Created by: MFata