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biology test #15

apologia study guide for module 15

Physiology The study of life processes in an organism
Nastic movement A plant’s response to a stimulus such that the direction of the response is preprogrammed and not dependent of the direction of the stimulus
Pore spaces Spaces in the soil that determine how much water and air the soil can hold
Loam A mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay, and organic matter
Cohesion The phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension
Translocation The process by which organic substances move through the phloem of a plant
Hormones Chemicals that circulate throughout multicellular organisms, regulating cellular processes by interacting with specifically targeted cells
Phototropism A growth response to light
Gravitropism A growth response to gravity
Thigmotropism A growth response to touch
Perfect flowers Perfect flowers – Flowers with both stamens and carpels
Imperfect flowers Flowers with either stamens or carpels, but not both
Pollination The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the carpel in flowering plants
Double fertilization A fertilization process that requires two sperm to fuse with two other cells
Seed An ovule with a protective coating, encasing a mature plant embryo and a nutrient source
Fruit A mature ovary that contains a seed or seeds
Name the four processes for which plants require water. Which of these processes can be neglected for a short amount of time? Photosynthesis, turgor pressure, hydrolysis, and transport. Turgor pressure can be ignored for a short time.
A biologist studies two plants. The flowers of the first plant open each morning and close each night. Is using nastic movement or phototropism? nastic movements
This plant’s flowers stay open all of the time. If the plant is placed with one of its sides in the shade and the other in the light, the plant will grow so that all of its leaves point towards the sunlight. Is it using nastic movement or phototropism? phototropism
Briefly describe the cohesion-tension theory of water transport in plants. (a) When water evaporates through the stomata in a plant’s leaves, a deficit of water is created. This causes the water molecules just below those that evaporated to move up and take their place.
Do xylem cells need to be alive in order for xylem to do their job? Why or why not? No. They do not play an active role in transport.
Do phloem cells need to be alive in order for phloem to do their job? Why or why not? Yes, because they take an active part in translocation.
What substances do xylem contain? What substances do phloem contain? Xylem contain water and dissolved minerals, while phloem contain sugar and organic substances.
Do insectivorous plants really eat insects? Why or why not? They do not really eat insects. They decompose the insects and use their raw materials for biosynthesis.
From a genetic point of view, what is the difference between vegetative reproduction and sexual reproduction in plants? Vegetative reproduction leads to offspring with genetic codes which are identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction leads to offspring with genetic codes which are similar to, but not identical to, the parents’ genetic codes.
A gardener says that one limb of his crab-apple tree now produces normal-sized apples. What must the gardener have done to make this happen? He must have grafted limbs from a tree that produces normal-sized apples to his crab-apple tree.
What is the male reproductive organ of a flower? What is the female reproductive organ? The stamen is the male reproductive organ, and the carpel is the female reproductive organ.
Why are the pollen grains and embryo sacs of flowers sometimes considered the gametophyte generation in an alternation of generations life cycle? Both structures are multicellular, and they both reproduce using gametes.
What two types of cells are found in a pollen grain? at least one sperm cell, and a tube nucleus.
Typically, how many cells are in an embryo sac? How many of them get fertilized? Seven. Two of them get fertilized
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma, while fertilization is the act of the sperms fusing with the egg and the large central nucleus in the embryo sac.
How many sperm cells are used in plant fertilization? two
Where does the endosperm come from? What is its purpose? It comes from the fertilization of the large, two-nucleus cell that is at the center of the embryo sac. It provides nutrition for the developing embryo.
The cotyledon or cotyledons help provide food for the plant before and often after germination. How do cotyledons accomplish each task? They either absorb the endosperm or aid in the transfer of nutrients from the endosperm to the embryo. After germination, they often perform the first photosynthesis in the plant.
Name the three basic parts of the plant embryo and what each gives rise to in germination. They are the radicle, the hypocotyl, and the epicotyl. The radicle becomes the root, the hypocotyl the stem, and the epicotyl gives rise to the first true leaves of the plant.
What is the purpose of a fruit? It allows for the dispersal of seeds to places away from the parent.
Name at least three ways in which pollen is transferred from the stamens of one flower to the carpel of another. wind, bees, beetles, birds, moths, or butterflies
Why are cotyledons sometimes called “seed leaves?” They form leaf-life structures if they end up rising above ground with the seedling.
Briefly describe the cohesion-tension theory of water transport in plants. (b) Since water molecules like to stay together, the water molecules just below the ones that moved up also move up, in order to stay close. This causes a chain reaction, eventually causing water from the roots to move up into other parts of the plant.
Created by: abigaileah
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