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Cell Biology Vocab

TermDefinition
Organelles Tiny structures within the cytoplasm that are specialized to carry out certain functions
Mitochondrion An organelle that provides the cell with energy through a process known as respiration
Ribosome Small organelles that are attached to endoplasmic reticulum and responsible for putting together proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum A series of canal-like folded membranes that helps to carry material through the cytoplasm; can be rough or smooth; rough ER has ribosomes attached
Golgi Apparatus An organelle in which proteins are stored; some of these proteins are put into packages called vesicles which can be carried to the surface of the cell and released
Lysosomes An organelle that breaks down large molecules within the cytoplasm and destroys damaged or worn-out cells
Nucleus The cell structure in plant and animal cells that acts as the control centre and directs all of the cells activities
Chromosomes The parts of the cell that contain genetic information
Cell Membrane The cell structure in plant and animal cells that covers the entire cell and acts as a gatekeeper by controlling the movement of materials into and out of the cell
Cytoplasm The fluid area of the cell in which nutrients are absorbed, transported, and processed, and wastes are stored until proper disposal can be carried out.
Cell Wall The plant cell structure that protects and supports the plant cell
Vacuole A fluid-filled space in plant and animal cells that can hold food and water
Chloroplasts The plant cell structure that contains many molecules of a green pigment called chlorophyll that helps plants use energy from the sun to make their own food
Created by: MRET