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SLS Bio11 CellBio DC

SLS Bio11 Cell Biology DC

TermDefinition
Cell theory a theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells.
Chloroplast organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Chromatin Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
Cilia Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
Cristae In-foldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Cytoplasm A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Eukaryotic cell Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.
Granum a stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast
Matrix Innermost compartment of the mitochondrion
Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Apoptosis process of programmed cell death
Crossing-Over Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Diploid Containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Haploid Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Gamete A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Mitosis vs Meiosis Mitosis is normal cell division everywhere Meiosis happens only in sex cells (gametes)
Prokaryotic cell cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
Stroma In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Thylakoid A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Aerobic Process that requires oxygen
Anabolism Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. Requires energy
Catabolism Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.
Cellular respiration Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Citric acid cycle A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Fermentation Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
Glycolysis the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Calvin cycle a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
Chlorophyll A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Light reaction The first of major stages in photosynthesis. These reactions, which occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast or on membranes of certain prokaryotes, convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process.
Photosynthesis Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars