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Lung structure.

Structure of lungs, bronchi and pleura.

QuestionAnswer
Where is the trachea situated? Palpable anteriorly, above suprasternal notch.
What is the structure of the trachea? C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage supporting a fibro-elastic and muscular aair-transport tube.
Where does the trachea start and end? Starts at C6, ends at T 4/5 (sternal angle) at carina.
What alters the tracheal diameter? The trachealis muscle (posteriorly positioned).
How many lobes do the left and right lungs have? The left has 2 lobes while the right has 3 lobes.
What is the structure of the bronchus? Each lung has one bronchus. The right main bronchus is slightly more vertical, shorter and wider than the left.
Which lung is more likely to be entered by a foreign body? The right lung because of its size and shape (bronchus of right lung is more vertical so easier for foreign bodies to travel straight down it).
How many secondary lobar bronchi does the left lung have? 2.
How many secondary lobar bronchi does the right lung have? 3.
How are the bronchi supplied with blood? The bronchi are supplied with oxygenated blood via the bronchial arteries.
What do the lobar bronchi divide in? Segmental bronchi.
What do the bronchi divide into? Conducting bronchioles then terminal bronchioles and then respiratory bronchioles, decreasing in diameter and finally becoming alveoli.
What is the histology of the trachea? Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar epithelium, with goblet cells for mucous secretion.
What is the histology of the bronchi? Pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium, but the height is decreased (flattened) compared to the trachea.
What happens to the histology as the bronchi branch into the lungs? The C-shaped cartilage rings are replaced by cartilage plates.
What is the histology of the bronchioles? Very thin lumen <1mm in diameter. The epithelium changes to become ciliated columnar (thinner/flatter) and there is a surrounding band of smooth muscle.
What holds the bronchioles open? The cartilage and glands disappear and the bronchiole is held open by the surrounding lung tissue.
What happens in the bronchioles in asthma? The smooth muscle in the bronchioles may excessively narrow the lumen.
What is the histology in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles? The epithelium becomes non-ciliated cuboidal (thinner and flatter) and goblet cells disappear).
What are alveoli? The basic structural and functional unit of the lung where gaseous exchange takes place.
Where are the alveoli found? They are found as outpocketings of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs.
What separates the alveoli? Separated by septae (alveolar wall) which is a thin membrane containing capillaries. The septae is the air-blood barrier for gas exchange.
What are pleura? The membranes which cover/line the organs within the cavity as well as the cavity walls.
What is the pleural cavity? The space between the layers of pleura.
What does the pleural cavity consist of? It contains fluid to lubricate the pleural surfaces allowing for smooth, gliding movements between surfaces.
What does the visceral/pulmonary pleura refer to? The pleura covering the lungs.
What is the parietal pleura? The membranes which cover/line the cavity walls.
What are the layers of the pleura called? Parietal (outside) and visceral (inside).
What separates the two lungs? The mediastinum.
How is the shape of the left lung different to the right? The left lung is slightly longer and narrower than the right lung, predominantly to make room for the heart and pericardium.
What is the name of the space that separates the superior and inferior lobes in the left lung? The oblique fissure.
What is the top of a lung called? The apex.
How is the lymph drained from the lung? Via the sub-pleural plexus and a plexus alongside the bronchi to hilar lymph nodes.
How do the lungs make room for the heart? The heart sits in the lingula.
What is the root of the lung called? The hilum.
What is the hilum? Allows structures (bronchus, pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins) pass into and out of the lung.
How does de-oxygenated blood enter the lungs? Via the pulmonary arteries.
How does oxygenated blood leave the lungs? Via the pulmonary veins.
How is the shape of the right lung different to the left lung? The right lung is slightly wider but shorter than the left lung.
What causes the difference in shapes between the lungs? Due to the diaphragm being higher on the right side.
What are the descending fissures in the right lung called? Horizontal/transverse fissure and oblique fissure.
Where are the apex of the lung and pleura in relation to the clavicle? Above the clavicle.
Where are the pleura and lungs in relation to the ribs? The pleura extend down to the costal margin while the lungs end 2 rib spaces higher.
How is the thoracic cavity expanded? Intercostal muscles between the ribs assist in respiration by expanding the thoracic cavity.
What do the intercostal muscles do? They raise the ribs (pushing the sternum up as well), but may also act in forced expiration to help lower the ribs.
What is the structure of the diaphragm? Muscular at its periphery, but tendinous centrally and it has left and right domes.
What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration? The domes descend, causing negative intrathoracic pressure, but raising intra-abdominal pressure.
What is the nerve that supplies the diaphragm? Motor and sensory supply is by the phrenic nerve.
What is a pneumothorax? Occurs when air enters into the pleural cavity.
What does a pneumothorax result in? A collapsed lung.
How is a collapsed lung treated? The air must be removed to allow the lung to expand again: a needle is inserted just above the rib to avoid damage to the neurovascular bundle that runs just inferior to each rib.
Created by: robertspedding