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Structure of airway.

Introduction to the respiratory system.

QuestionAnswer
What is respiration (in terms of airways)? Providing oxygen to the body and removing carbon dioxide through inhalation and exhalation.
How is inhalation/inspiration achieved? By increasing the size of the thorax.
How is the size of the thorax increased? Contraction (and lowering) of the diaphragm and raising the ribs.
How does increasing the size of the thorax inspire air? Creates a negative intra-thoracic pressure that sucks air through the conductive passages and down into the lungs.
What is included in the conductive passages? Nasal cavity; nasopharynx; larynx; trachea and bronchi.
What must happen to the air before it enters the lungs? It must be warmed, filtered and humidified.
What warms, filters and humidifies the air? Vascular mucosa, cilia and mucus.
How is expiration achieved? By decreasing the size of the thorax: generally a passive process.
What is the nose? The external structure which anteriorly encloses the nasal cavities.
Through what can we enter into the nasal cavity? Via the nares.
What holds the nasal cavity and the respiratory tract open? Cartilage and bone.
Where are the nasal cavities found? Above the oral cavity, between the two orbits, posterior to the nose and anterior to the nasopharynx.
What is the nasal cavity lined with? A highly vascularised mucosal membrane lined with respiratory epithelium.
What cells make up the respiratory epithelium? Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar, interspersed with goblet cells (that secrete mucus).
What is the nasal septum? A midline structure which separates the right and left nasal cavities.
What is the structure of the septum? Anteriorly the septum is made of septal cartilage, while posteriorly the septum is made of bone.
What would happen if the septum deviated from the midline? Sinus drainage may be compromised.
Where is the Olfactory epithelium positioned? Restricted to the roof and adjacent lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
Where are the nasal conchae (turbinates) located? On the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
How many conchae are there and what are their names? 3: superior, middle and inferior.
What is the function of the conchae? They provide turbulence and increase the surface area for air flow and heat exchange.
Where is the meatus located? Under/lateral to each concha.
Define meatus. A passage or opening.
How do the sinuses and nasal cavity communicate? Adjacent air sinuses open up into the meati.
What is the structure of the nasal cavity? The cavity is divided by the midline septum, the turbinates project from the lateral wall and overhang the meati, into which the sinuses open.
Where are the orbits in relation to the nasal cavity? Immediately lateral.
What is the structure of the maxillary sinus and how does this affect it? The opening is high in its medial wall and clearance of mucus is dependent upon ciliary action.
What can cause sinusitis? Infection of the maxillary sinus or a deviated septum.
What is one function of the sinuses? Assist in warming incoming air.
What is the function of the nasolacrimal duct? Enters the nasal cavity to drain tears from the conjunctiva of the eye.
What is an epistaxis? A nose bleed.
Is the nasal mucosal membrane highly vascularised? Yes.
What do the blood vessels in the nasal cavity do? Anastamose between branches of the external carotids and internal carotids (L+R).
Where is the olfactory bulb and nerves located? In the roof and upper parts of the lateral wall.
What is the function of the olfactory bulb and nerves? For the sense of smell.
What is the pharynx? A tube of fibrous and muscular tissue that can be divided into 3 parts.
What are the three parts of the pharynx? The nasal cavity (nasopharynx), the oral cavity (oropharynx) and the larynx (laryngopharynx).
What is the function of the nasopharynx? Transports air and is divided from the oropharynx by soft palate.
What is the oropharynx? Transports air plus food and fluid. But these must be separate so air passes into the larynx while food and fluid continue into the laryngopharynx.
What is the larynx? A membranous tube suspended between cartilages, the positions of which are controlled by muscles.
Why may laryngeal diameters be altered? Allow the passage of air only and control airflow for speech and raising intra-abdominal pressure.
What can the cricothyroid membrane be used for? Site of emergency access to the airway.
Where is the aryepiglottic fold? At the upper edge of the quadrangular membrane.
Where is the vestibular fold? Formed by the lower edge of the quadrangular membrane.
Where is the vocal fold? The upper edge of the cricovocal/cricothyroid membrane.
What structures are based on the lamina? Arytenoids and corniculates on top of them.
What are the different types of descending laryngeal cartilage? Epiglottic (elastic), thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid.
What forms the laryngeal inlet? Aryepiglottic folds.
What is the function of the laryngeal inlet? It is the protective sphincter.
How is the inlet closed? Elevation of the inlet (using muscles), which is lifted up and forward during swallowing.
Where are the mucosal glands situated? Within the opening of the laryngeal ventricle is the saccule where the mucosal glands are found.
What is the function of the mucosal glands? They help lubricate the vocal folds.
What do the vocal folds control laryngeal diameter for? Speech, coughing, sneezing and raising the intra-abdominal pressure.
What allows the vocal folds to adjust the laryngeal diameter? Muscles within and adjacent to the vocal folds narrow or widen the opening (rima glottidis), or alter their tension.
What are the main actions of the laryngeal muscles? Close/open the inlet (ary-epiglottic folds). Close/open the rima glottidis (arytenoid gliding and rotation). Shorten/lengthen the vocal folds ("rocking" at cricothyroid joints).
What is the only muscle that opens the rima glottidis? The posterior crico-arytenoid.
What is the function of the superior laryngeal nerve? Supplies only 1 muscle in the larynx and sensation above the vocal cords.
What is the function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve? Supplies all other muscles in the larynx, and sensation of vocal cords and below.
What may be at risk during thyroid surgery? Laryngeal nerves.
Where is the trachea situated? Anterior to oesophagus. Medial to carotid arteries and internal jugular veins. Inferior to larynx. Upper section is surrounded by the thyroid gland.
What does the trachea divide into? The right and left main bronchi.
Created by: robertspedding