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A&P Chap 6 Key Words

TermDefinition
Abduction Movement away from the midline or axis of the body; opposite of adduction
Acetabulum Area where the three bones of the hip unite to form a deep socket into which the head of the femur fits to form the hip joint
Adduction Movement of part of the body or limb toward the midline of body; opposite of abduction
Amphiarthrosis Partially movable joint (e.g., symphysis pubis)
Appendicular skeleton Part of skeleton consisting of pectoral and pelvic girdles, and limbs
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint
Articular cartilage Thin layer of cartilage over the ends of long bones
Atlas First cervical vertebra, articulates with the axis and occipital skull bone
Axial skeleton Skeleton of head and trunk
Axis Second cervical vertebra
Ball-and-socket joint Diarthrosis joint that allows the greatest freedom of movement
Bursae Closed sacs with a synovial membrane lining, found in the spaces of the connective tissue between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones
Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa
Calcaneus Heel bone
Carpals Bones of the wrist
Cervical vertebrae First seven bones of the spinal column
Circumduction Circular motion at a joint
Clavicle Collar bone
Coccyx Tailbone
Compact bone Also known as hard bone
Diaphysis Shaft of a long bone
Diarthrosis Movable joint(e.g.,elbow, knee)
Dislocation Displacement of one or more bones of a joint or organ from the original position
Endosteum Lining of the medullary cavity in the long bone
Epiphysis The end of a long bone
Ethmoid Bone of the cranium located between the eyes
Extension Act of increasing the angle between two bones
Femur Longest and strongest in the body, thigh bone
Fibula Slender bone at outer edge of the lower leg
Flat feet Weakening of the leg muscles that support the arch of the foot; called talipes
Flexion The act of bending a limb or decreasing the angle between two bones
Fontanel Unossified areas in the infant skull; soft spot
Fracture A break in a bone
Frontal Bone of the skull that forms the forehead
Gliding joint Joint in which the nearly flat surfaces of the bones Glide across each other (e.g., vertebrae)
Gout Increase in uric acid crystals in the bloodstream, which are deposited in joint cavities, especially the great toe
Hammertoe A toe that is curled due to a bend in the middle joint of the toe
Hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells
Hinge joint A joint that moves in One Direction or plane
Humorous The bone of the upper arm
Hyoid A U-shaped bone found in the neck to which the tongue is attached
Ilium The broad, blade shaped bone that forms the back and the side of the hip bone
Inferior concha Bones that make up the side walls of the nasal cavity
Ischium Forms the lower posterior portion of the hip bone; bears the weight of the body when sitting
Joint Place where two bones meet
Kyphosis Hunchback; humped curvature of the spinal column
Lacrimals Pertaining to tears
Lordosis Forward curvature of lumbar region of spine
Lumbar vertebrae Five vertebrae associated with the lower part of the back
Mandible Lower jaw bone
Manubrium Forms the upper region of the sternum
Maxillae Bone of the upper jaw
Medullary canal Center of the shaft of a long bone
Metacarpal Bone of the wrist
Metatarsal Bone of the foot simular to the metacarpal, 5 metatarsal form the arch of the foot
Nasal Bone that forms the bridge of the nose
Obturator foramen Large opening between the pubic bone and the ischium that allows for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and tendons
Occipital Bone that forms the base of the skull and contains the foramen magnum
Ossification Process of bone formation
Osteoarthritis Degenerative joint disease
Osteoblast Cells involved in formation of bony tissue
Osteoclasts Cells involved in resorption of bony tissue
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone
Osteoporosis Loss of calcium in bone, causing brittleness; occurs mainly in females after menopause
Osteosarcoma Bone cancer
Palatines Tonsils located on the side of the soft palate
Parietals Two bones that form the roof and sides of the skull
Patella Kneecap
Periosteum Fibrous tissue covering the bone
Pelvis Any basin-shaped structure or cavity
Phalanges Bones of the fingers and toes
Pivot joint Joint in which an extension of one bone rotates in a second, Arch shaped bone
Pronation Turning of the palm of the hand downward
Pubis Pubic bone; portion of hip bone forming front of pelvis
Radius Bone on the thumb side of the forearm
Rheumatoid arthritis Chronic inflammatory disease that affects connective tissue and joints
Rickets Disease in which Bones soften due to a lack of vitamin D
Rotation Type of movement in which a bone moves around a central axis
Sacrum Wedge-shaped bone below the lumbar vertebrae at the end of the spinal column
Scapulae Large, flat, triangular bone that forms the back of the shoulder
Scoliosis Lateral curvature of the spine
Sphenoid The key bone of the skull
Spongy bone The result of hard bone when it is broken down
Sternum Flat, narrow bone in the median line in front of the chest; it is composed of three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
Supination Turning palm of hand upward
Synarthroses Immovable joint connected by fibrous connective tissue
Synovial fluid A lubricating substance produced by the synovial membrane
Talus Ankle bone that articulates with bones of the leg
Tarsal Ankle bone
Temporals Side of the head
Thoracic vertebrae The 12 bones of the spine located in the chest area
Tibia Larger, inner bone of the leg below the knee; shinbone
Ulna Bone on inner forearm
Vomer Flat, thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum
Whiplash injury Trauma to cervical vertebra
Xiphoid process Structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
Zygomatic Bone that forms the prominence of the cheek
Created by: Staceyleeann1972